Wednesday, July 31, 2019

What Is It Like to Be Blind?

There are thousands of blind people in our country, and there are hundreds of thousands of them around the world. One can simply close his eyes in order to imagine what it is like to be blind. Such experiment is really the best way to understand how blind people feel and what they have to face in their daily life. The feelings I could experience after spending one hour with closed eyes touched me deeply. For some first minutes I was able only to make some slow and awkward movements, because I was quite scared of coming against the things around me.Certainly, I got used to the environment soon, but it was still difficult to cope with the situation and decide, what to do. Then, I got a new angle on the issue. What about career, accomplishments, love, success, or hope? Suddenly, I realized how helpless and apathetic the blind can feel. I tried to walk around my house and even came out of it, but I constantly felt stressed and very uncomfortable. I could experience how hard it must be fo r blind people to perform their daily routines without meaningful help of a sighted guide.Besides, it became clear to me that it takes more time and efforts of the blind to perform simple actions and operations, like turning on the oven or looking for the remote control, etc. Finally, I understood that, actually, the blind can not even do and enjoy many absolutely usual things we do and enjoy every day. They can not fully enjoy TV shows and movies like we can, can not read or surf Internet as fast as we can, and so on. Certainly, nowadays there are many technological solutions, which help blind people to read and write, or use computer, or stay organized, but it is still very complicated, I suppose.Therefore, this experiment helped me to experience some difficulties of the blind and taste the effects of failures they can face. Certainly, within the time such people get adapted to their disability and learn what they can and what they can not do. But this is really hard, and I only w ish all blind people to be strong, find their support and inspiration, and always use the power of their imagination in order to picture this world in bright and beautiful colors. Bibliography: †¢ â€Å"What Is It Like to Be Blind? † Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Chldren. Destra Business. 2007. 23 May 2007 .

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Fashion Icon & Fashion Leader Essay

Abstract No one could have a accurate and comprehensive definition of the two terms â€Å"fashion icon† & â€Å"fashion leader† in the past decade while these two new words appear frequently in the fashion world today. However, it seems that these have their own significance and concept in two different cultural perspectives. The propose of this research is to answer the question what does the â€Å"fashion icon† & â€Å"fashion leader† mean respectively in U.K. and China and what causes the difference understanding of it, which may influence the development of the fashion world in the future. Literature research, personal interviews and internet surveys are the methods that I used to explore this study which could get in-depth, comprehensive, professional and the newest information. In addition, what I found out from this study research is to the different culture leading to the difference structure of the society. And having a different form of the society, the rules of the life, the things the public pursue, the place people is looking forward to,the lifestyle the mass being willing to enjoy is not the same. This is a big topic to discuss, but we can start from the small point. Let’s go back to the fashion world to talk about the different concept of the two terms, â€Å"fashion icon† & â€Å"fashion leader†. introduction A big wave of new word have been appeared these years to describe the new things invented with the development of the modern fashion world; e.g. chic, buyer, disco, stylist†¦The term â€Å"fashion icon † is thrown around too much these days. It is obvious that â€Å"fashion icon† is the most popular term which will be mentioned in today’s fashion world. However, the meaning of the new term is different in eastern and western culture. What cause the phenomenon and what difference meaning included with the similar word â€Å"fashion leader†is the key point of the research to explore. The definition of fashion is quite complexed which is the value or life style in a period. It is proposed by some small sort of people. And then the public respected and followed. The range of fashion is very wide, including making-up, clothing, dressing, behavior, sense of identifying, feeling and even thoughts. Not  every one can follow a correct direction of popularity for fashion. Fashion could be in a limited scope instead of in a very large scale. Majority have a difficulty about fashion which leads them to follow some pioneers . At this time these person and organization shows their importance to the mass. Having an essence of fashion reflects their own tastes which makes â€Å"fashion icons† &†fashion leaders† become some popular these days. To analysis the complexities of the adaption curve into account from two different culture is an essential problem. PROBLEM STATEMENT/ Research Question: †¢ What is â€Å"fashion icon† in UK? What is â€Å"fashion leader† in UK? What is the relationship between â€Å"fashion icon† and â€Å"fashion leader†? †¢ What is â€Å"fashion icon† in China? What is â€Å"fashion leader† in China? What is the relationship between â€Å"fashion icon† and â€Å"fashion leader†? †¢ It is obvious that it have different definition of â€Å"fashion icon† & â€Å"fashion leader† in UK and China. What factors influenced it? †¢ Will it cause the development of the fashion world in the future? †¢ What other aspects could be related with the difference? Research Objectives and Aims: 1. Aim: To investigate the factors that leads to the difference description of the two new terms in fashion. 2. Objective: †¢ The information will be extracted from some well-known fashion insiders’ opinions which have been reported to the public. †¢ Questionnaire will be distributed to various types of people, then to collect and count the result of the responses. †¢ To analysis the consequence of all the information of both British fashion area and Chinese fashion area, distinguish the main factor of it. Literature Review International aim is fast becoming one of the most popular entry mode strategies for international retail companies when moving into international markets (Burt, 1993; Quinn and Doherty, 2000; Quinn and Alexander, 2002). Though initially slow to respond to this practical phenomenon occurring in the international retailing domain, the academic community has also been gradually turning its attention to the nature of international franchising,  in the context of retailer internationalisation (Whitehead, 1991; Sparks, 1995; Quinn, 1998; Doherty and Quinn, 1999; Quinn and Doherty, 2000; Quinn and Alexander, 2002). This review will give a brief conception of the â€Å"fashion icon† & â€Å"fashion leader† in UK and China separately. Followed by analyzing the factors effect on the phenomenon, to have a further discussion on if it will cause the development of the fashion world in the future and the other relative areas. In 1980, Chinese professor MINYI HU, who is a professor of the DONGHUA University which university is famous for its fashion and art college in Shanghai, suggested the opinion that a fashion icon is a famous person who dresses in trendy and stylish fashions that catches the attention of people throughout the world. (MINYI HU, 1989) The innate character of fashion is changeable and various. â€Å"In act of making fashion choices, a person is animating (making alive, acting, performing) her or his body bu imposing on it a social veneer that permits it to perform in specific desired ways and to be interpreted in the intended manner by others.† (Jennifer Craik, 2009) Which means that if a person want to show her or his individual taste about fashion, she or he can show it through dressing certain style of clothes to present. In addition, HU gave her definition to the term â€Å"fashion leader†. A fashion leader refers to an individual or corporation that is taken as a trend setter in the fashion industry. Usually, such an organization or products by such individuals attract high revenues and admiration from other industry players. (MINYI HU, 1989) According to HU’s theory, fashion icon seems to be person who is well-known by the public for his/her wearing, even he/she can be seen to be a idol following the fans who want to copy his/her style while fashion leader is a more professional position in the fashion field to analysis the fashion trends will be on. â€Å"I think that the part that’s holding people back now is that they basically only go to the shows. There’s very few of these street blogs that go back to their city, wherever that is, and shoot. People just get very obsessed with getting a picture of those known names, as opposed to really speaking from the heart and shooting from the heart.† (Scott Schuman, 2012) However, the famous fashion photographers Scott Schuman considers that the person who can leads to fashion is not just on the run-way and the front stages. The true stylist may live in our life instead of just fitting in the fashion shows. Contrasted with the definition  given by Chinese fashion researchers, the understanding of the new term â€Å"fashion icon† have a different explaining by British investigators. The famous model Twiggy is be definition of the 1960’s fashion icon. The report set Twiggy as an oppressive icon is consistent with many popular press analyses that render the Twiggy phenomenon as a culturally important manifestation of the ‘‘ideology of thinness’’.(Craig& Diana, 1997) From then on ,the word â€Å"fashion Icon† has appeared. According to the newest list of the top 100 fashion icon in the world which supported by TIME (2012), fashion icon contains many varieties of fields, such as designers & brands (Giorgio A rmani, Hubert de Givenchy, Vivienne Westwood), models(Twiggy, Kate Moss, Naomi Campbell), muses(Madonna, David Bowie, Princess Diana), photographers(Richard Avedon, Guy Bourdin, Steven Meisel), editors & stylists(Isabella Blow, Grace Coddington, Patricia Field), style & design. A big amount of them come from UK, which illustrates that fashion icon is not just a conception of a certain person who has a good and unique taste of dressing anymore. Fashion leaders can be defined as those who are more interested in fashion than other consumers in the market, who are more confident of their own taste, who are the first to purchase new styles and, above all, who influence other consumers to adopt and buy new fashion items.(Greenberg et al., 1982; Kaiser, 1990; Polegato and Wall, 1980; Schrank and Guilmore, 1973) Although it fashion leader has been followed in a quite high stage. However, it original aims for the media spread the image of fashion leader is various. For instance, during the 1960s and 1970s, marketers were interested in increasing their knowledge about fashion leaders in order to develop marketing strategies that could attract these consumers. The underlying assumption was that if fashion leaders bought the product, other consumers would probably follow (Kaiser, 1990). Each style affects its carrier’s ability to deal effectively with the alternate kind of group process requirements. A distinction is drawn between culture conflict and related notions of deprivation and culture difference. (Rosalie, 2009) What Rosalie said seems to explain the reason why people will have a different understanding of the two words about fashion. METHODOLGY AND FEASIBILITY Methodology For this research, I used qualitative and quantitive design by doing literature survey, delivering questionnaire online for the internet surveys and interviewing some friends and the some neighbour for the personal interviews. These are all the methods that I have used to exposes this problem, which could get in-depth, comprehensive, professional and the newest a qualitative way. The essay is intend to develop the difference between two new terms about fashion. A qualitative design may not be able to solve all the questions, instead a method mixed with qualitative and quantitive is appropriate for getting an achievement of this research. To examine the data from all kinds of aspects may contribute to obtaining more reliable information. It was also focused on attitudes collecting from research participants and through the research design, a full-ways understanding about the two words themselves can help the researcher more easily to gain the data and make a results of factors may influence different regions of understanding the same terms. What’s more, a limited time is a other difficulty for these research, but it also a challenge . Method & Feasibility Administering questionnaires, personal interviews and internet surveys were the ways for this study. The reasons why using mixed method presented have 3 points. Point 1, it was suitable for researcher’s objectives and could collect a big amount of information from different kind of volunteers in a high efficiency way. Point 2, interviews is a quite distance and fast method way to get information. And can get the feeling of the interviewee face to face. Some are afraid of interview because of feeling under pressure in a one-to-one setting. As a result, point 3 , the internet surveys is better way to involved the embarrassing situation. And combination of all three methods, I consider it is the most appropriate ways to different kinds of people. The sample size was 50 in questionnaire. 17 of them chose to fill in the questionnaireï ¼Å'6 of them chose have a personal interview, and the others prefer have an internet surveys for the research.all the questionnaires were delivered to the volunteers on 12th December and  completed on the 19th in the same month. And it is be left enough time for the volunteer to finish the questionnaire with a no pressure environment. Personal interview is a private situation. Paying attention with protecting the personal information when doing a interview is the key to this methods. Give the enough trust to the interviewees. The result will too good to expect. Internet survey is the same questionnaire with the first method. Privacy protection was still the most difficulty that many voluntee wasn’t willling to fill the real information to de questionnaire. Most of them have a high self protection, which may lead to the information got is not so accurate. To solve this issue, any information was anonymously collected, but protecting privacy remained in a secret box. In other words, it was necessary for the researcher to explain the content carefully or interpret content appropriately when research participants asked questions about the questionnaire. Furthermore, it was appropriate to provide a written introduction to the topic for participants about the questionnaire, which may have helped them understand easily and be willing to fill questionnaires out. Finally, avoiding harm is also important, which means that researchers should not ask any sensitive questions or personal questions which might cause harm to research participants. A survey illustrate the main factors about the people’s knowledge about the fashion icon and fashion leaders. 35% people said they know nothing about what fashion icon is ,15% people have a highly awareness about fashion icon but have no idea about fashion leaders, 27% people think even they know just one or two fashion icon , they won’t pay more attention on it, the rest percentage of the person have an interest in fashion and want to know more information about it. Most person show great interest in fashion is female and no matter the Asian girls or the European girls. But the fashion icon these two different regions girls focus on is different. A result can be get is that people always accept the fashion icon in their own culture more easily. LIST OF references Craig, J. T.& Diana L. H. 1997. Journal of Consumer Research. Speaking of Fashion: Consumers’ Uses of Fashion Discourses and the Appropriation of Countervailing Cultural Meanings.Vol. 24, No. 1 (June 1997), pp. 15-42 Greenberg, B.A., Lumpkin, J. R. and Bruner, G.C. 1982. Opinion leadership and innovativeness in fashion diffusion, American Institute of Decision Sciences Proceedings, pp. 240-42. Jennifer, C. 2009. Fashion . Rhe key concepts , pp. 02 – 03. Kaiser, S.B. 1990. The social psychology of apparel 2nd ed. Macmillan, New York, NY. Kerry, P. 2012. Harper’s BAZAAR. Interview – The Sartorialist New Book Closer. Minyi, H. 1989. Modern Fashion in The Last Decade. New coming words , Vol.6 pp. 88 – 89. pp. 90-91 Rosalie, A. C. 1969. American Anthropologist. Conceptual Styles, Culture Conflict, and Nonverbal Tests of Intelligence, Vol. 71 No. 5, pp. 828 – 856. TIME. 2012. List, ALL-TIME 100 Fashion Icons.,29569,2110513,00.html

Application of Theory: Early Childhood Essay

Every builder knows â€Å"A house is only as strong as its foundation†. They also know that they have to evaluate and become familiar the land before beginning to work. This rationale can be used as a guideline for teachers across the world, especially with the children in the early childhood stage, ages 2-6, because how teachers assist children in this stage will serve as the foundation for the life ahead of them. A child develops physically, cognitively and socially. It is important for the teachers to know how the child is developing in order for them to effectively teach the students because they lack of understanding can lead problems for the child. Additionally, if the teacher is aware of how the child is developing, they can assist and promote the way their students think, succeed, socialize, and understand their emotions. At this stage, teachers can also begin to promote diversity, because most often, it is in the classroom that children of this age encounter people that are different. Throughout an individual’s life, he or she goes through several stages of development, where they are developing physically, cognitively and socially. These stages begin from the day you are born and continue throughout your lifetime and last up until the day you die. Through each stage, there are certain changes an individual is expected to go through. Looking specifically the early childhood stage, physically, children’s grow rate and body fat declines. It is also during this stage that the children began to rapidly develop their gross (running and jumping) and fine (writing and drawing) motor skills. Most importantly, during early childhood the brain and nervous system are growing. It is in the early childhood stage that the child enters school and their cognitive development is noticeable. Cognitive Development can be defined as the growth of one’s intelligence. During the early childhood stage, the child is developing symbolic reasoning and intuitive thought and they are perceived to be egocentrism. From the assignments they receive in class you can see the child’s rationale and how they see the world when they tell the stories of their pictures. It is also because the child has entered school that they began to develop more socially. Although the children initially develop there social skills from their parents once they begin to attend schooling they develop relationships with their peers. They often want to emulate what they see their friends do from the way the walk to the way the dress. They also want to spend majority of their time playing with the other children. All teachers should understand the different stages that a child goes through in order for them to effectively teach their students. Teachers should understand that successful learning depends on properly setting the stage for her development ? creating an open, supportive, engaging environment that meets a child’s social, emotional, and cognitive needs. (Church and Ravid. 2003) When teachers have a lack of understanding of the development stages it can cause confusion in the classroom. For example, children who are at the early childhood stages are at the point where they often display temper tantrums when things do not go the way that they planned. Not knowing this may not only cause the teacher to become impatience but also cause the students to continue the behavior. Most importantly, teachers who do not understand the development stages may not know where the students need to be. As teachers, we must understand that there may be some influences in the child life that has caused the child’s developments to be halted. Sometimes it only takes five extra minutes spent on a subject, extra work or tutoring for the child to get back on track. In my school, I see that more and more teachers are having problems teaching their students and when they are not mastering the material in the manner the teachers thought they would. Unfortunately, these teachers want to automatically have the child placed in a special education classes or have the resource teacher work with them (My school is working on the inclusion style of teaching for students with learning abilities). If the teacher knew much about the development of the students they would know the differences between a child with learning disabilities and a child that has not been in the environment in which they could properly develop. When a teacher fully understand the development stages and know what stage their children are in they will be in a better position to assist in their students’ development. One important skill a teacher a can assist early childhood children develop, especially children in the early part of the stage, is there listening skills. It is important that teachers know that taking advantage of the world of sounds is a wonderful way to help young children develop their listening skills. (Miller, 2001) Students can read stories, play music, or just simply talk to the students in order for the children to pay attention. If it is something of interest, they will often listen to what is going on. However, having children pay attention to the sounds is not enough; therefore teachers mush request the students to repeat what is going on. This year I have decided to incorporate the Arthur ® cartoon series into my classroom. This series teaches educational lessons through a story plot. I have the kids to pay attention to what is being said and ask them what is going on. I noticed that kids that watch the cartoons will remember what is said and the next time they see the cartoon they are able to cite some the lines along with the characters. Understanding the students’ development stages can also provide teachers information that can be used to help students achieve greater success; because, providing a high quality education for young children is a key to a child’s future success. Foundational skills needed to achieve academic success include social development, cognitive development, and physical development. (Sanders, http://www. pbs. org/teachersource/prek2/issues/703issue. shtm) Additionally, the students must have self-confidence and motivation to succeed. Therefore, the teachers must not only ensure that their students are receiving educational activities that enhance the development in all three areas but they must make sure that the students willingly participate in the activities. Some students may not want to participate in some activities because they may be weak in that area and as mentioned before, children at this stage often have temper tantrums. In my class, I often express to the students that it is important to participate in all the activities whether under my instruction or not. I make sure that I call on everyone student and that they attempt to answer the question. When I know that the student is weak in an area I give them the easier questions first and when they offer the right answer I often will say â€Å"I KNEW YOU COULD DO IT!!! â€Å". I also make big news when my students conquer their weakness and make it to the wall of fame and they often continue working to succeed in all areas. Therefore, giving your students praises and encouragement can cause them to strive harder to succeed in class. During the early childhood stage, the child begins to develop a conscience. The child is not only coming to an understanding of what is right from wrong but is often afraid of being caught doing something wrong. Knowing this, teachers must allow students to make decisions on their own. When explaining the rules to the students at the beginning of the year, I often will give each student a hypothetical situation and ask then what they would do and give the opportunity to explain why. By doing this, I am learning how much development the child has in this area. I had one student who had brought candy from home and while I was grading the test I watched him to see if he was going to sneak the candy. He was unaware that I was watching and I surprisingly; he chose not to eat the candy. I called him to the side before the class was to go to lunch and told him I was watching him and I was pleased that he had decided not to eat the candy. In addition, a child needs to have social skills if they want to succeed in class and in life. Helping children to develop a repertoire of positive and appropriate social behavior is a primary goal of early childhood education. Teachers need to coach the solitary child to learn to watch a group at play and then to suggest an appropriate role that helps them enter in. (Coons. 1985) When the students shy away from interacting with the other students the teacher should encourage the students to observe for a will then have them join. I often provide activities where I pair off the students to work together because I notice that it is easier for a child to â€Å"come out of their shell† when there is less people in the class. Each time, I make sure that I make different pairs and by the end of the first month of school each person has spent one-on one time with all the students in the class. Now I am able to incorporated group activities where the whole class is participating and my children are all comfortable in working together as a class to complete assignments. However, the teacher must realize that a child’s social skills will only continue to progress if the child is emotional developing. As instrumental figures in the students’ life, teachers can foster mental health in young children by providing many opportunities for healthy emotional attitudes to develop. Dr. Erik Erikson has made a significant contribution to our understanding of those basic attitudes. It takes a lot of patience combined with good judgment and warm, nurturing relationships to raise emotionally healthy children. But no matter what we do, children are going to feel sad, afraid, anxious and angry from time to time. (http://www. pbs. org/wholechild/providers/dealing. html) Having dealt with Emotional Disordered students, I realize that they are very quick tempered and many small things will make them angry. Although I teach my students not to laugh at each other when someone makes a mistake, there are times when they â€Å"slip up†. When they do the child that made the mistake often feels embarrassed and extremely angry and immediately wants to fight the other students. After disciplining the child who laughed, I pull the child aside tell them that it is totally acceptable to fell embarrassed and angry but you can not express it through fighting. I tell them if this happens again that they should express to the student n words how you feel. The student immediately gives me a smile because I understand and hen this happens to the next time, most of the time, they tell the other kids that they would not like it if it happened to you. This makes it important that teachers explain to the students the concept of diversity and ensure that they tell the students that we are all different in some way; one in which how we learn. Educators must help our children appreciate the diversity and complexity of all people; therefore, in or to fulfill our commitment to diversity and to empowerment of all children and families we serve, schools and early childhood programs need to take the lead in supporting the healthy identity development of this ever increasing population. (Wardle. 1998) Henry Brooks Adams, writer and historian, put it wonderfully when he said, â€Å"A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell, where his influence stops. † Teachers of children in the early childhood stage should especially consider this in the classroom. Their students are at the beginning stages of a lifetime of development and it is at this stage that what they observe and learn that will be the building block for who they will be tomorrow. Our lack of understanding can be the negatively effect their future; therefore would should try to provide a learning environment that will assist in development. As teachers, we have the power to promote critical thinking in our students and assist our students in succeeding not only in school but also life. We need to ensure that our students work on being socially and emotional healthy and understand how diverse the world is. If we do all of this, we are increasing the chances of our student to make it in the real world and therefore have demonstrated that we are effective at our jobs. References Church, Ellen Booth, Ravid, Frann. (2003. Sep. ) Setting the Stage for Learning. Scholastic Parent & Child, Vol. 11, Issue 1 Coons, Phyllis. (1985. December) STUDY SAYS TRAINING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD BENEFITS YOUNGSTERS. Boston Globe. Boston, Mass. Miller, Susan. (2001.Oct. ) 3 to 4: Listening and learning. Scholastic Early Childhood Today. New York. Public Broadcast Station (PBS). Dealing with Feelings: Emotional Health. Retrieved September 15, 2005 from http://www. pbs. org/wholechild/providers/dealing. html Sanders, Steve. The Issues: Physically Active for Life. Retrieved on September 15, 2005 from http://www. pbs. org/teachersource/prek2/issues/703issue. shtm. Wardle, Francis. (1998). Meeting the Needs of Multiracial and Multiethnic Children in Early Childhood Settings. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1.

Monday, July 29, 2019

International Business Law 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

International Business Law 2 - Essay Example Hiring manpower from the Indian outsourcing company is permitted under the Contract Labor Act, 1970 (Majmudar & Co n.d., 4). Considering the strategy of Stone Technical Ltd, it can be assumed that the company can be regarded as a principal employer, because its business is not of an intermittent nature in respect of contracts (Majmudar & Co n.d., 4). If the Stone Technical Ltd will hire 20 or more contract workers, it is required to comply with the provisions of the Contract Labor Act (Majmudar & Co n.d., 4). As well it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that Indian law should govern the outsourcing contract; this measure will enable the client to restrain contractor in case of the breaching an outsourcing contract (Majmudar & Co n.d., 4). So as the Indian employee laws are considered to be relatively restrictive, Stone Technical Ltd need to be concerned about the employment rules relating to holidays, flexible working hours, etc. (Mohapatra n.d.). Privacy and data protection is a matter of concern in India because of the lack of a comprehensive legislation (Chawla 1, 2007). There is neither a specific statute for dealing with this legal issue nor a comprehensive data protection law (Eisenhauer 7, 2005). However, it is possible to derive the protection of privacy and data from different laws concerning the information technology, crimes, intellectual property and contractual relations (Chawla 1, 2007). Even though there is not enough stringent data protection laws in India in order to protect the Indian outsourcing market, there are some provisions in the Act 17 (Sinha 2009). Also the Indian government has enacted a set of electronic commerce regulations, known as the Information Technology Act 2000, which addresses breach of confidentiality provisions, hacking and damage to computer source code (Eisenhauer 7, 2005). For violation of data

Sunday, July 28, 2019

How New Media Changed the Way in Which Individuals Communicate Coursework - 3

How New Media Changed the Way in Which Individuals Communicate - Coursework Example Unarguably, the Internet is central to the sophistication of information and communication. It has enabled people - through their computer systems and mobile network devices - to be networked together so that they interact real-time. A resident of London, for instance, could chat with a friend from Chile, read an on-going news story about what is happening in Libya and buy some apparel from a manufacturing outfit in China. All these feats could be accomplished at the same time, from the comfort of the Londoners own home and just with some clicks of his mouse. It is easy to understand how people regard the Internet as a blessing for the sheer reason that it makes life so much easier and for knowledge to be gained at the speed of light. Presently, the global Internet users are fast approaching its 2 billionth mark. (World Internet Usage 2011) Because of this, the Internet became a platform for communication as well as a form of digital community that people could take advantage of for whatever objective, cause and purpose they have. For example, there is the issue of online trade or more popularly known as e-commerce. Organizations through the Internet gain access to millions upon millions of consumers to sell goods and services. At the other end of this equation, there are also those millions who turn to the medium in order to find and buy goods and services. Today, trade of all kinds and in all volumes peruses the Internet as an integral part of the sales process because it eliminates several steps and barriers in the ordinary trading process. Because of the Internets capability, production and sale of goods and services have become cost-efficient, benefitting the producer and the consumer in the process. The type of communication offered by online infrastructure has provided users with a facilitated way by which their economic or  commercial needs are satisfied. Online trade and marketing are now so sophisticated that they are permeated people’s online lives.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Velocity 2 - Part II Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Velocity 2 - Part II - Assignment Example In my opinion, this creates more waste. The reason this is said is that such employees who are neglected rather refuse to add any value to the organization. It is therefore important to identify lack of employee utilization as a major bottleneck within the organization, which is worth addressing for the collective success of the organization (King, 2011). The points you raised are very important and useful for any organization that wants to clearly identify why it is not improving. This is because conflict among management can be a major hindrance that will retard the growth of organizations. As an insight to the situation, I believe that most organizations come to face this bottleneck when there is lack of clear consensus as to who should take leadership affair and manage the organization. Most of the time, everyone wants to be a leader of their own, creating so much conflict of ideas (King, 2011). There is however a way out to dealing with this situation. Instead of everyone seeing themselves as bosses, the company can employ the use of shared responsibility, where specific roles are defined to each person. After this, each person must be given clear demarcations as to where their authority ends. Then more importantly, the roles of the leaders must be joined together with the collective goal of the organization so as to avoid the w aste of leadership resources (Jacob,

Friday, July 26, 2019

Letter research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Letter research - Essay Example You may believe that my letter is a pamphlet against the war in Iraq. Mr. President, it is not as I believe the issues are much more complicated than that. I firmly consider that the will to install democracy in a country where tyranny and injustice were the fundamentals of everyday life is a noble cause. Noble not only in the fact of freeing the Iraqi people, but also as we are the World leader, to show the rest of the world that we are responsible and conscious of the issues and problems of the other countries and that we are ready to take action in order to defend the weakest at international level. At any level, one can only help another if the latter is willing to accept this help. Unfortunately, it is not the case in Iraq. We have to admit, however frustrating and deceitful it may be, that we are no longer welcome in Iraq. Our history shows a great record of rescues but we are not in Paris in 1944, where all French people were crying of joy when they see our tanks driving through the Champs-Elyses. The other aspect we have to acknowledge is the astronomic cost of the war in Iraq. To this day, we have spent over $280 billions in war effort. This brings me to the second subject of my letter: the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In 1997, the American Senate unanimously rejected to ratify the treaty. Mr.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Law of Tort Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Law of Tort - Essay Example To begin with, the information is solicited at a party which indicates that in the circumstances, Mary could not have reasonably expected Winston to exercise a degree of care. Secondly, there is no evidence on the facts of the case for discussion indicating the Winston held himself out as having specialized knowledge relative to good used car. It would appear that Mary is relying on the fact that Winston is her boyfriend and this is not the requisite special relationship alluded to in Hedley Byrne. The special relationship referred to is in which the individual relied on for information and advice is in that line of business. Liability for negligent misstatement will not arise in social settings.5 The situation with Errol is quite different as Winston is asked for advice based on his professional capacity as an account executive. Errol wants advice about the Winston’s company’s profitability and sales potential with a view to going into business with Winston. Liability for negligent misstatement would arise where advice or information is sought from a person who is qualified to give that information or advice and it is clear that the information or advice is going to be relied on.6 Therefore Winston owes Errol a duty of care since he is an account executive and owns the business that Errol wants information about for the sole purpose of going into business with Winston. It is clear that Errol will rely on Winston’s information, as Errol is seeking the information for a specific purpose.7 Winston can also be liable to Errol for remaining silent when his boss Felicity fraudulently misled Errol with respect to the insurance policy. Although Felicity is Winston’s boss, Sizzler’s is Winston’s company, the fraud involved information about Sizzler’s insurance policy covering Errol’s new shop. Therefore Felicity is actually Winston’s agent. Under the ruling in Standard Chartered Bank v Pakistan National Shi pping Co., the principle is liable for the fraud of an agent who was acting under the principle’s authority.8 Winston will also be liable for negligent misstatement with respect to the reference he provided for Barnie. Barnie was let go from Winston’s employ as a result of restructuring, not for the reasons stated in his reference for Barnie. The fact that Winston believed that his reference was honest is of no consequence since he failed to investigate the facts before committing his reference to paper and distribution. It was held in Cox v Sun Alliance Life Ltd that an employer owed a duty of care to conduct reasonable enquiries into the facts. All negative statements must only be made after conducting a reasonable inquiry or investigation.9 This case confirms an earlier ruling by the House of Lords in which it was ruled that an employer

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

S.W.O.T. analysis on Costco Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

S.W.O.T. analysis on Costco - Essay Example The companys first business opened in 1976 under the name Price Club on Morena Boulevard, San Diego (Costco Wholesale, 2013). The company originally served small businesses, but it discovered that it could achieve greater buying influence by also serving some audience of non-business members. In 1983, the company’s first warehouse was opened in Seattle. The company became the first to grow from 0 to $3 billion in terms of sales in less than six years. Costco merged with Price Club in 1993. The combined company operated under PriceCostco where it had 206 locations of operations generating annual sales of $16 billion. The headquarters of Costco Wholesale Corporation is found in Issaquah, Washington. The company is the globes biggest warehouse club chain based on sales. The company has employees of about 142,000 in number. This paper analyses Costco in terms of its strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats. The paper sets out a short history of the company and its market position. The paper looks at the revenue of the company, and the areas it can also engage into in order to increase its revenue. This paper sets out to explore if Costco has managed to hold its ground in its line of operation (Costco Wholesale, 2013). Costco boasts of very loyal customers. Customer loyalty is the strength of the link between an organizational relative attitude and continuous patronage with customers. The organization has effectively managed to attract and retain many customers over the years of its operation in operation (Costco Wholesale, 2014). Since Costco has a loyal customer base, it allows for the organization to have continued business from customers. It gives the organization credibility from customers who help it to grow. Customer loyalty has many benefits which include customers buying from an organization from time to time again, increase in how much

A written opinion of your legal thoughts Movie Review

A written opinion of your legal thoughts - Movie Review Example However, the manner in which the officer attacked him was a violation of the human rights. The police officer used a chokehold to bring Eric to a position that he could be handcuffed. The chokehold seemed to have suffocated Eric, and he succumbed to suffocation. There is no possible explanation that can set the officer free from his actions. The move was unwise and a violation of the human rights and the code of ethics and conduct. Similar to Eric Garner’s case, the video on Rodney King’s death illustrates how police officers ignored their duty to uphold general responsibility towards suspects. The video indicates police officers roughing up Rodney. The worst part is that Rodney did not use any force or resist arrest. He was powerless and helpless. The police officers took the law in their hands. Their inhumane action was governed by personal issues rather than professionalism. Unlike the Garner situation, the police find Raheem in a brawl. He resists arrest, and the police officer decides to put him down by choking him. The video, an excerpt from the movie â€Å"Do the Right Thing, 1989† Radio Raheem, a fictional character, is held in a chokehold. The video indicates the manner in which police use brutal force to maintain a suspect who resists arrest. However, the police office ends up being a liable for murder due to neglecting the code of ethics and conduct in his line of

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Hitler and the Munich Beer Hall Putsch (1923) Term Paper

Hitler and the Munich Beer Hall Putsch (1923) - Term Paper Example After the failed attempt of Munich Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler was sentenced to fie years in prison while being convicted of treason. During the following one year, he dictated his autobiography. Called â€Å" Mein Kampf†, based on his political career. While he did not spend more than one year in prison, the event made him a national hero, as he pursued the fresh attempts to rebuild the Nazi party within the given legal framework. After the heavy loss in World War I and very unfavorable terms of Versailles treaty, the nation had been facing many economic hurdles. The years following this witnessed national instability with veterans and rebellious youths swelling the membership of both the right and left wing parties with the aim of overthrowing the government through armed struggle. The successful â€Å"March to Rome† by Mussolini that gave power to fascists in Rome during October 1922 provided inspiration for the youths who had joined Hitler’s Nazi party to carry out such an attempt in Germany. As Nazis prepared for the coup attempt, the membership of this party had exceeded almost 50,000. Accordingly, Hitler planned to start a â€Å"March on Berlin† movement for taking over the national government. During this time, many responsible authorities of Bavarian state government were agitating against the federal policies on the issue of resistance to Franco-Belgian occupation troops. This resulted in their preparation for a coup against the Berlin rule. Accordingly, they discussed the strategy for such action on the evening of 8 November 1923, while meeting at a hall in the eastern part of Munich. In the meanwhile all nationalist and radical forces had formed a coalition called â€Å"Kampfbund† to give it a shape of a combat league. However, as Hitler was not invited to the Bavarian meeting of November 8, the rivalry of Hitler and Bavarian President Kahr resulted in the deposition of Bavarian government. Accordingly, the

Monday, July 22, 2019

Aristotle Essay Essay Example for Free

Aristotle Essay Essay Aristotle Despite being Plato’s student, Aristotle’s views conflict with his teacher’s. The biggest difference being that Aristotle was a realist; he saw the value in studying the physical world and trusted his senses, unlike Plato who believed in the world of forms. Plato believed that we need to look beyond the physical world for a metaphysical explanation of the universe, Aristotle refuted this. Aristotle observed nature and used logic and reason to explain how it works; he tried to find the ‘action’ of why things exist and tried to make sense of them. Also, Aristotle’s approach was imperial and he trusted the use of reason based on his experience. Aristotle rejected Plato’s dualism; he thought that the body and soul are one, as the brain and body are. This opposes Plato’s views that the body and soul were separate. Aristotle believed in the four causes, the principal that everything has four causes of existence: Material cause – refers to what a thing is made of, Aristotle used the example of a bronze sculpture and a silver saucer, Aristotle would say that bronze or silver is the material cause. However, an object can have more than one material cause, for example, the laptop I’m typing on is made of plastic, metal, wires and glass; these would all be material causes. The material cause also counters Plato’s theory of the world of forms, he would say that my laptop has a perfect form however, it is made up of individual things in order to be a laptop, all of the things it is made up of must have their own perfect form according to Plato, making his theory contradictive. Formal cause – refers to the structure of an object, the shape it takes that makes it what it is. It is what we recognise as the thing we are looking at. An object must have a specific order in order to be what it is, for example, a bronze sculpture is not just a lump of bronze, and it has been shaped into a sculpture in order to function, as my laptop has been assembled into an order so it works. Efficient cause – refers to how the object has changed from a state of potentiality to what it is, for example, the way a bronze sculpture has been taken from a lump of bronze chiselled until it is made into a statue by the sculptor. The efficient cause of an object may not be as simple as this i. e. my laptop’s efficient cause may vary from machines and people to plastic moulds and screwdrivers. It is the cause of the change. Final cause – refers to the purpose of an objects being; the purpose of a sculpture might be to be admired, the purpose of my laptop is to let me watch videos of cats playing musical instruments on YouTube. Aristotle uses the example of health being the cause of walking, Why does one walk? he asks, that one may be healthy. The final cause is perhaps the most important of all of the causes. Aristotle’s understanding did not end there, he said that once something has achieved a state of actuality, it will be in a state of potentiality, for example, take ‘whiteness’, when my shirt is washed and becomes clean and ‘white’ but it has the potential to become dirty and ‘not white’ anymore. Aristotle also came up with the idea of the Prime Mover. The Prime Mover is, according to Aristotle, the ultimate and final cause of the universe. He said that everything in the universe is in a state of change (motus) so the Prime Mover must exist outside the universe, so that it is not affected by what happens inside. The Prime Mover cannot change, because to change something must exist in a state of actuality and have the potential to change i. e. an actual child is a potential adult. Aristotle does not consider the Prime Mover as a God, because a god is a living being which effects what happens in the world, however, the Prime Mover does not affect what happens in the universe, it is just the cause of it. Aristotle says that the Prime Mover has to exist because the universe has to have a cause. The Prime Mover also has to be eternal, because if something comes into existence it must be caused by something else.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The use of child labour to maximise profits

The use of child labour to maximise profits Many companies agree that  maximising profit is a key aspect of their  business objectives. To what extent, then, is it justifiable for them to utilise child labour in carrying out this goal? (3153 words). In this paper, the main focus will be on child labour and the issues surrounding the topic. I will consider how businesses behave in regards to child labour, both from a business and an ethical point of view. There are two key arguments; should businesses utilise cheap labour to lower production costs? Or do they have a duty of care in order to prevent children being exploited within their business? For the purpose of this essay I will examine various theories in conjunction with how businesses apply them. For example, I will analyse the Milton Friedman theory of business, in regards to multinational companies, and how it affects their behaviour towards child labour. Other theories to be considered include Marxism, Egoism and Ethics of Right. In conclusion I will assess how companies behave towards the issue of child labour; as an ethical and financial advantage, or as an unethical view. I will also give contemporary examples of child employment. Often child labour is confused with child work but Whittaker claims that there is a clear distinction. For example, a child performing a newspaper delivery before going to school is a child worker: This is because there is no economic compulsion forcing the child into employment. Rather the child keeps his wages and spends them on such peer group necessities as the latest style jeans, records or, increasingly, videos and home computers. By and large nobody forces him to go to work. (1986, p20) Lavalette (1994, p.8) However, child labour is defined as: Work which does not take place under such relatively idyllic conditions. It is defined as having an element of economic compulsion associated with it and, according to Fyfe, involves time and energy commitment which affects childrens ability to participate in leisure, play and educational activities. Finally, child labour is work which impairs the health and development of children (Fyfe 1989, p4) Lavalette (1994, p.8) Michael Lavalette (1994) explains that child labour exists because of two reasons: Children are an example of a reserve army of labour, drawn into the labour market when it is tight to provide extra labour power. Lavalette (1994, p.2) This suggests that when labour is in high demand and there are insufficient adult workers, businesses tend to use children as a back up. Secondly, Children work in backward regions of the economy where unemployment is highest and poverty most severe. In these circumstances children work to alleviate their familys hardship. Lavalette (1994, p.2) This means that child employment occurs mainly in poverty and where the children have to support their family financially. Many people frown upon this exploitation of children. But one must consider to what extent is child employment justified? Many children in poverty try to avoid stressors such as violence, sexual or emotional abuse. One of the easiest ways for children to avoid these stressors is by engaging in active labour. Thus, from a childs point of view, it can be justified for children should work to in order to avoid being emotionally, sexually or violently abused. Consideration must be given to the employers view. Due to globalisation, outsourcing has become a trend in businesses. By outsourcing, it is possible for firms to exploit wage differentials around the world. This then allows for production at a much lower cost, and therefore maximises business profit. However, this approach is argued to be very unethical and shows how profit driven business objectives relate to the the Milton Friedman concept: Friedman argued that the social responsibility of business is to seek profits for the stockholders Bowie (2002, p.2) This indirectly suggests that in order to lower costs and to promote profit maximising prospects that arise with globalisation, businesses need to take advantage of these global opportunities, otherwise they may be forced out of the market by other competitive firms, Globalization and liberalization of markets and intensifying competition in commodity markets have increased demand for labour in developing countries. There has been a significant outsourcing of economic production from the developed countries to the developing countries due to globalization. Anon (1982, p.5) This further supports that The successful quest for cheaper labour implies child labour. Rahikainen (2004, p.210) This gives further weight to the argument that Children are the most subordinate and cheapest form of labour, thus highly attractive to some types of employer Fyfe (1989, p. 17) All of the quotes above interlink with each other to explain why companies use children as a cheap form of labour. The levels of child exploitation and oppression are significantly higher where there is no, or limited, regulation for childrens labour market activities, where legal requirements are easily and consistently ignored Lavalette (1994, p.13) The majority of companies believe survival is essential in a globalised economy and therefore they exploit these conditions to fulfil outsourcing opportunities, because they. The majority of child labour is said to occur in Asia. Save The Children estimates that 61% of working children live in Asia Youth Information (accessed 25 April 2009) Labour-intensive consumer-goods industries increased productivity by pressing the advantages of the division of labour, and cut wage costs by the extensive employment of women and children. Rahikainen (2004, p. 32) Some children are exploited to do certain adult jobs because they can perform the task more effectively and efficiently In certain industries like copper making and electronic assembly, children are more skilful because of the dexterity of their small fingers. But children, because of their dependent position, are the most easily exploited of all workers Fyfe (1989, p.32) The world of work (employers and other unscrupulous people) seems to pull children because they are very cheap and obedient, can be easily exploited, do certain things more efficiently and effectively which adults fail to do (e.g. Nimble Fingers). Herath and Sharma (2007, p.56) This is a way of decreasing wage costs because children are doing adult work, but are not being paid the adult wage. The managers are able to exert more control and authority over children, because they are less likely to retaliate in comparison to adult workers who are aware of their employment rights. This is very money driven based business and can be related to the ethical theory of consequnetialist, a consequence based approach, the egoism theory. Egoism refers, in terms of philosophy, to theories in which self-interest is regarded as the principal motivating factor Encarta (2009) Which in this case the self interest would be profit. This can relate to child labour as all they care about is lowering costs and increasing sales to increase profit not human rights of children. This deduces that they ARE self motivated by money (self interest) hence following the egoism theory. However Lavalette stated that Fyfe and Whittaker suggested Child labour can be either good or bad depending on the context in which it takes place Lavalette (1994, p. 8) Businesses can see child labour to be an advantage not only because of lower costs, but as it is taking children off the streets. They support children by providing a job and maybe even benefits (depending on the company). This gives the company an ethically moral image because they are seen to be providing child employees with basic needs. This helps the children lead a healthy life, which they may not receive by living on the streets. Where children are individually employed, they may be paid in kind, receiving board and lodging in the household of their employer Anon (1982, p. 480) Moreover, by companies not employing children, there is a danger that they could be out on the streets and involved in prostitution, drugs or crime. Those underage who would be saved from child labour for example, from working on carpets or footballs could be driven into prostitution or destitution. Munck (2002, p.130) And as a result of employing children it is shown that Child labours are better off than a great number of children elsewhere who do not work, but who do not eat Lavalette (1994, p.44) However not all child employees live on the street, some also hold the responsibility of their familys well being instead. Poverty forces families to send their children out to scratch whatever meagre living they can to help the family survive Lavalette (1994, p.13) Moreover, this supports that Childrens income is frequently far from supplementary: they may be de facto breadwinners, supporting other members of their family Anon (1982, p. 487) Furthermore, it gives the employer the image that they are helping children who have the burden of caring for their families. Furthermore, this extends the good corporate image, which, as a result could increase sales. This is because there is a greater awareness of this exploitation, but some see the advantages for the children and therefore promote the cause by purchasing the products to keep the children in a job and not in poverty or on the streets. However peoples perspective tends to differ. Proscribing child labour in the south without compensation would lower the living standards of those who are already desperately poor. Munck (2002, p.130) This give weight to the idea that all the advantages that both businesses and children gain from child labour, whether it keeps children off the streets or to support their family, or businesses gaining cheap labour would be removed by legislation to abolish child labour. This is not necessarily the right thing to do depending on what peoples perceptions are; whether children need to survive through active employment, or the fact that they are just children and that they should live like a child and not be required to undertake the stresses and physical damage working does to a child. This leads onto the next argument, that companies should help abolish child exploitation and should hold ethical and social responsibilities. Some companies avoid child labour because they want to be known as socially responsible. An example; GAP, in October 2007 a ten year old was found in the back streets in New Delhi the conditions were quoted by the Observer to be close to slavery, he was sold by his parents to the sweatshop making gap toddler clothing. But as Gap wants to be known as socially responsible their policy they enforced was: that if it discovers children being used by contractors to make its clothes that contractor must remove the child from the workplace, provide it with access to schooling and a wage, and guarantee the opportunity of work on reaching a legal working age. McDougall (2007) The only reason that this unethical employment of children wasnt revealed any sooner to Gap was that they were subcontracting companies who hired child labour however they did say that they still hold fully responsible; After learning of this situation, we immediately took steps to stop this work order and to prevent the product from ever being sold in our stores. McDougall (2007) In recent years Gap has made efforts to rebrand itself as a leader in ethical and socially responsible manufacturing, after previously being criticised for practices including the use of child labour. McDougall (2007) This is an example of taking corporate social responsibility which gives the company a better image. Other revelations of companies associated with child labour include Primark which took actions and decided not to trade with the suppliers anymore and took their clothing off the shelf. Nike also established rules to increase the minimum age workers to 18 in Asian footwear factories and to offer free educational classes and to improve the air quality of the plants. However, There is ample evidence that child-wage labourers continue to work even when minimum age legislation exists. Fyfe (1989, p.17) This shows that some businesses are not socially responsible and breaching the Acts provided to protect the children from exploitation, and therefore should follow the steps to correct their actions. This could be what Karl Marx proposed in The Communist Manifesto: Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of childrens factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, etc. Marx (1884) His view was simple in that all companies should abolish child labour and children should be entitled to have free education and by following and providing this, it would help offset the businesss image as child employers to an image of socially and ethically responsible. Additionally the company should take care when sub-contracting to make sure that no child labour is associated with them and not just within its own business. It is small scale enterprises or sweatshops, often operating as subcontractors to larger enterprises, that are most adept at avoiding the usually inadequate factory inspectorate Fyfe (1989, p. 17) Even though large companies are against breaching human rights they still need to look carefully at who they are contracting. An ethical policy that should be pursued by companies is ethics of rights, which states that every human being has basic rights and freedoms that they are entitled to from birth and should be respected by others in every way. If an individual has a moral right, then it is morally wrong to interfere with that right even if large numbers of people would benefit from such interference. Velasquez et all (1990) By exploiting human rights, the corporate image perceived by potential customers would be lacking of corporate social responsibilities. This can have an adverse effect in the number of sales. Moreover, in the short term by exploiting human rights and employing children could lower costs, but the longer term consequence of this approach could lowers sales figures. This could be that customers disregard any product that hasnt been fairly made or is unethical. Therefore, by employing children, it does not give a large margin of advantages. This matter of exploitation could also attract protestors or agencies that are all about protecting children, for example UNICEF. They can create a bad image for the business. This can attract the media and possibly authorities leading to fines and prosecution of breaching Acts. For example, the Children and Young Persons Act 1933. On another point, employing children is cheap but the efficiency and quality of the work is sometimes not up to the minimum standard depending on the work so technically the company loses out by quality hence sales figures are affected. Children who undertake adult work tasks: do not possess the physical and mental capacity that these jobs call for, and their work is usually done less efficiently than if it were performed by an adult Lavalette (1994, p.44) This depends on the jobs but in this case I refer to the job being hard manual work. There are many disadvantages for a child starting work at an early age Child labourers are usually dismissed once they become adults, forcing them to join ranks of the unemployed. The low-level skills they have gained are often insufficient to allow them to obtain further paid employment Herath and Sharma (2007, p. 39) Even though the children are being fed it does not mean that they are living a healthy life. In 28 countries, the average per capita intake of calories is 73 to 89 per cent of what is required but it is lower for the poorer segment of the population, from which most working children come, even though their work raises their nutritional requirements. Working children also become more susceptible to infectious diseases including tuberculosis, if they suffer from malnutrition, anaemia, fatigue and inadequate sleep. Fyfe (1989, p. 21) Child labour causes not only loss of formal education and human capital but also the lack of social and cognitive skills and increased health hazards Herath and Sharma (2007, p. 18) It is argued that every child should have a childhood where they play and to be educated to better their future. Children are not little adults their fundamental right is to childhood itself Fyfe (1993, p. 5) Businesses should help their child employees found within the business to clear their name and their image that are perceived to be by the public. This should include free education and any other actions to correct this exploitation this will in the long run help with the corporate image and sales and potential employees in the future. In conclusion children are among the most vulnerable and powerless and continue to be exploited as part of a downward push on costs and a rapid withering of decent, formal employment. Solidarity Center (2008) There seems to be ample evidence to support the school of thought that child employment is acceptable, because companies are keeping children off the streets, prostitution etc. Some businesses try to be labelled as socially responsible instead of child labourers as they strive to give good benefits such as the right health and safety measures, schooling, food and shelter and many others. However 2 questions that I find myself to ask: Does giving benefits make them socially respectable for still employing young children? Just because they are giving them benefits does that mean that it counteracts that children at a young age are being worked? Is this still ethically right that they have to work for education? (a basic right for any child). Does this remove the idea that they are child labours just because they give the children benefits? Another argument is that the businesses may claim they are giving all these benefits, but how do we know as part of the public that the businesses are carrying out these promises as we do not have an insight within the business? Overall, if companies argue that they are helping the children but are infringing on human rights in order to stay in the market with other competitors, it shows clearly that their aim is to compete with other companies and to gain maximum profit which shows how egoism theory of self interest (in this case profit) and Milton Friedmans theory of businesses work for profit only. This relates to the money driven mind and a lack of respect for human rights whatever the age. Such companies and should follow Karl Marx proposal and respect human rights. The loss in profits from abandoning child labour will be offset by an image of social responsibility which has a positive impact on sales. By giving benefits I dont believe that this makes the business socially acceptable, because children shouldnt have to work for basic entitlements. This is where the government should be involved and help to provide with these entitlements. In conclusion of the essay I have found that child labour effects business image mainly and which way it is perceived by the public in their own views of what is justifiable and what is not, is what affects sales which hence affects profits. Majority of the public think that child labour was abolished in 1989 but it is still continued to be found in the 21st century today in large multinational companies mainly and needs to be intervened by more enforcements by the government.

Structures And Functions Of Cells In Nervous System Biology Essay

Structures And Functions Of Cells In Nervous System Biology Essay Neurons are the nerve cells; they contain a cell body, an axon, and dendrites. The cell body is the part that contains the nucleus and cytoplasm. The axon is a piece that extends from the cell body; its job is to send impulses away from the cell body. Most are covered with myelin sheath. This sheath helps protect the axon and speeds the impulse. The dendrites branch off from the cell body also, their job is to send impulses to the cell body. Neuralgia is a connective tissue that supports the neurons. Their job is to protect the nervous system. Astrocytes look like star-shaped cells; they are the biggest of the neuroglial cells in the central nervous system. Astrocytes surround the brains blood capillaries to form blood-brain barriers which protect the brain from harmful substances. Microglia are smaller cells that eat cellular debris, waste, and pathogens in nerve tissue. Oligodendrocytes are in the interstitial nervous system, smaller than astrocytes. They wrap around axons to form myelin sheaths. As stated above, the sheaths protect the axons and speed the nerve impulses. Describe the structures and functions of the  peripheral nervous system (PNS). Be sure to include the nerves associated with the PNS, and contrast the functions of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves, which transmit impulses from the brain to other parts of the body; and ganglion, which are masses of nerve cell bodies that connect structures. There are two main groups of nerves: the afferent nerves and the efferent nerves. The afferent nerves send information from the body to the brain. The efferent nerves send information from the brain to the muscles. The system is then broken into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The somatic nervous system regulates the voluntary controlled parts of the skeletal muscles, while the autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary controlled parts like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the glands, and secretions. The autonomic nervous system is also broken into two parts: the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. The sympathetic division responds when the body is in danger, increases heart rate, blood pressure, etc. The parasympathetic division is when the body is relaxed and resting. It is responsible for things like constriction of pupil, slowing of heart, and digestive systems. Name the two primary components of the  central nervous system (CNS).   Describe the protective membranes associated with the CNS. Differentiate between afferent and efferent nerve structure and function. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is protected by the skull and the spinal cord is, obviously, protected by the vertebrae. They are also surrounded by meninges and by cerebrospinal fluid. The meninges are three protective layers of tissue. The outermost layer is the dura mater, the middle is the arachnoid membrane, and then the pia mater is the innermost layer. The cerebrospinal fluid flows all around the brain and spinal cord. It provides nutrients to the central nervous system. The spinal cord consists of afferent and efferent nerves. The afferent nerves send information from the body to the brain. The efferent nerves send information from the brain to the muscles. Name and give a brief description of the structures of the brain. Include the functions of these structures. The four major divisions of the brain are the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the brain stem. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is the whole top portion of the brain; it controls the memory, sensations, and voluntary movements. The cerebellum is attached to the brain stem and its main function is to coordinate body movements and balance. The diencephalon is in between the cerebrum and the midbrain. It consists of the thalamus, which is in charge of the sensory stimuli; the hypothalamus, which is in charge of sensory functions (i.e.: sleep, appetite, etc.); and the pineal body, which is in charge of regulating the bodys biological clock. The brain stem is between the spinal cord and the diencephalon and consists of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the upper part of the midbrain. The brain stem is the path for impulses between the brain and the body. Choose 10 pathological conditions affecting the nervous system; describe each including diagnosis and treatment, if applicable. Alzheimers disease is a progressively fatal disease. It destroys brain cells and causes memory loss. Gradually over time the person will no longer be able to write or perform tasks, and then it gets to the point that the person cannot even control bodily functions such as bowel and bladder movements. There is not really a diagnostic test yet that has identified Alzheimers. There is no cure for AD, but the use of tacrine hydrochloride is used in mild cases to improve memory. Bells palsy is generally a temporary paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face following trauma. Diagnosis is simply the inability to close eye or drooling because of no control of facial muscle on one side of the face after a trauma has occurred. There is really no treatment needed, however, facial massage, heat, prednisone for swelling, or analgesia for pain all help. Anencephaly is when there is no brain or spinal cord at birth. The only diagnosis is through an amniocentesis during pregnancy, and there is nothing they can do. Carpal tunnel syndrome is pressure on the median nerve caused by swelling of the tendons. Doctors diagnose carpal tunnel based on the symptoms of tingling in the fingers or palms of hands, pain in the wrists, or weakness in hands. Treatment uses splints, anti-inflammatory drugs, and sometimes surgery. Cerebral contusion occurs when the brain hits the inner skull and causes a bruise of the brain, happens most often in car accidents. If doctors suspect a cerebral contusion they can have an MRI or CT scan run. Treatment consists of close observation, if there is a lot of intracranial pressure then surgery may be needed. Huntingtons chorea is an inherited, degenerative disorder. The characteristics are spontaneous involuntary motor movements, speech problems, and restlessness. Since the disease is inherited, genetic testing could be done to diagnose the disease even before it begins. There is unfortunately no cure for this disease. There are many support groups for families affected by the disease. Narcolepsy is a sleeping disorder where the person can fall asleep randomly for minutes or even hours at a time. A polysomnogram can be performed to evaluate the persons sleep patterns. There is no cure, but medications are used to control the symptoms. Shingles (herpes zoster) is a viral infection that causes a rash on the body; occurs mostly in adults over 50. Flu-like symptoms, GI disturbances, tiredness, and rash are all symptoms that help to diagnose the disease. Treatments are used to help ease pain and get you better faster (analgesics or antiviral medications). Paraplegia is caused when there is severe injury to the spinal cord, results in paralysis of the lower half of the body. There is no treatment for paraplegia. However I did see online that there are many support groups for anyone who knows or falls victim to paraplegia. Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. MS destructs the myelin surrounding nerves of the CNS. There are many symptoms that indicate someone could have MS: Unsteady balance, numbness of multiple extremities, facial numbness, and even impotence in males. When a doctor suspects MS an MRI may be performed, complete blood count, and spinal fluid evaluation. As with many of the diseases of the nervous system, there is no cure for MS. There are some medications that have helped prolong remissions, and as always there are support systems to help the family and persons affected by the disease.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Deceit and Betrayal in Shakespeares Macbeth :: Free Macbeth Essays

Deceit and Betrayal in Shakespeare's Macbeth Shakespeare's play "Macbeth" is considered one of his great tragedies. The play fully uses plot, character, setting, atmosphere, diction and imagery to create a compelling drama. The general setting of Macbeth is tenth and eleventh century Scotland. The play is about a once loyal and trusted noble of Scotland who, after a meeting with three witches, becomes ambitious and plans the murder of the king. After doing so and claiming the throne, he faces the other nobles of Scotland who try to stop him. In the play, Macbeth faces an internal conflict with his opposing decisions. On one hand, he has to decide of he is to assassinate the king in order to claim his throne. This would result in his death for treason if he is caught, and he would also have to kill his friend. On the other hand, if he is to not kill him, he may never realize his ambitious dreams of ruling Scotland. Another of his internal struggles is his decision of killing his friend Banquo. After hiring murderers to kill him, Macbeth begins to see Banquo's ghost which drives him crazy, possibly a result of his guilty conscience. Macbeth's external conflict is with Macduff and his forces trying to avenge the king and end Macbeth's reign over Scotland. One specific motif is considered the major theme, which represents the overall atmosphere throughout the play. This motif is "fair is foul and foul is fair." In the first scene of the first act, three witches plan their next meeting in which they will encounter Macbeth. It is in this scene that the motif is first presented, as the tree witches chant, "Fair is foul, and foul is fair, hover through the fog and filthy air" (1.1.11-12). The witches meet again in scene three of act one. One of the witches discusses a curse she has placed on a woman's husband, because she refused to share her food. This display of evil powers and spitefulness, suggests that the witches may have some influence in the development of the motif. Macbeth enters during this scene along with Banquo, arriving from a victorious battle. He uses the motif to describe the day as "So foul and fair a day I have not seen" (1.3.38). When Macbeth encounters the witches, they give him two predictions. One is that he will become the thane of Cawdor, and then the king of Scotland.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Guns, Germs, and Steel :: History, European Dominance

All through history, there is a ubiquitous theme. In life’s perpetual cycle, the Europeans always manage to overshadow the other civilizations. Why is it that the Europeans dominated the other races? Throughout Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond desperately attempts to answer Yali’s question asking â€Å"Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own† (Diamond, p. 14)? In the Epilogue, Diamond summarizes his answer to Yali’s question essentially attributing the environment for the success of the Europeans and discredits racial superiority of any sort (Diamond, p.405). Although other factors contributed to the rise of the European civilization, the environment was the main factor. Some specific factors falling under environment that affected the European civilization are geography, food production, and diffusion and population. The geography of Europe contributed to its dominance over the other civilizations. The Chinese appeared to have it all. They had a rise of food production, the largest human population in the world, and developed writing and most of all they were unified country (Diamond, p.411). The European coastline was highly indented with five large peninsulas which all evolved independent languages, ethnic groups, and government. China has a much smoother coastline with land that is less scattered compared to Europe (Diamond, p.414). â€Å"Europe’s geographic balkanization† and discord among the states developed hundreds of competing, and ambitious states (Diamond, p.416). States were kept on their toes to try to out due what another state had previously accomplished because they knew â€Å"if one state did not pursue some particular innovation, another did, forcing neighboring states to do likewise or else be conquered or left economically behind† (Diamond, p.416). Chinaà ¢â‚¬â„¢s unification based on geography led to their demise. Their government isolated them from the outside world and rejected all imports including technologies leaving them dramatically underdeveloped in a world of technologies (Diamond, p.416). Food production also affected Europe’s dominance over the other civilizations. As stated in chapter 18, â€Å"the former absence of food production in [the Americas] was due entirely to their local paucity of domesticable wild animals and plants, and to geographic and ecological barriers that prevented the crops and the few domestic animal species of other parts of the Americas from arriving (Diamond, p.356). Domestication of animals varied among the continents because of differences in continental areas and the Late Pleistocene extinctions.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Coert Voorhees Bio

Coert Voorhees Biography Coert Voorhees is an author and I am going to talk about his life, his philosophy and his hobbies. Voorhees was born and raised in New Mexico, where he developed a weakness for Hatch green chile. He still lives with his family in Huston. A former Fulbright Scholar, Coert has lived all over the world and now resides with his family in Houston, Texas, where he received an MFA in Fiction from the University of Houston.Coert made a web site called www. grammaropolis. com were parents can help their children learn faster and better at English. Next, Coert philosophy is an author. He graduated in Middlebury College and a former Fulbright in Chilean theatre. His screenplays goes on different competition, and went in the semi-finalist in final drafts 2008 big break, and his a 2009 new American voice nominee. Coert has currently received his MFA in fiction at the University in Huston.He is has written two books his first novel is â€Å"The Brothers Torres† and â€Å"Lucky Fools† a second book he made in 2012 it is also book I just read. Voorhees was a smart adult in college he was always trying to get in to collage since he was little. This relates to a book he wrote called â€Å"Lucky Fools†, a quote from the book stated â€Å"it turns out the an act of defiance such as the one I perpetrated makes for the subject of a spectacular college essay, so long as one’s narrative coach is able to frame it the right way. (Coert Voorhees pg. 290). Then, come his hobbies Coert Voorhees that are quite interesting his favorite NFL team is the DENVER BRONCOS, baseball team is ALBUQUERQUE ISOTOES. Favorite things about Coert, first his favorite movie the REAL GENIUS, native dwelling HOGAN, government agency NASA, role model OPTIMUS PRIME, burger BEACK PRIME, Latin America country is Chile, mexican food is stuffed sopaipilla, operating system he uses is OSX, singer/songwriter RICH PRINCE.Authors that Coert has always liked Denis Joh nson, George Saunders, Don Delillo, Antonya Nelson, Tim O’Brien, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Marion Downs, David Wolman, Sara Voorhees, Will Clarke, and finally David Yoo are his best author and book writers. Second Voorhees went to PINEWOOD high school in California. To conclude, after reading about Coert Voorhees I realized that it takes hard work to get to where you want to be.

Social Tension of the 1920s and Nativists

Christopher Nieves The social tension of the twenties was to a large extent receivable to backlash from Nativists and the KKK towards immigrants. With the immigrant surge threatening jobs and tainting the snowy Anglo-Saxon society, the idea of nativism began to proliferate by dint of the minds of native born Americans. Social conflicts lots came to violent ends by the hands of members of the Ku Klux Klan, they kindredwise had a nativist mindset further they focused primarily on African Americans but harbored hatred towards anyone who is non of Anglo-Saxon descent.These two proceedings made for a severe society, and made matters even more punishing for penniless immigrants trying to survive. Starting up around 1890 but plateauing in the mid-twenties nativists and labor unions fought for immigration restriction. In 1921, an arrest immigration act was passed which established a quota system that decimated the amount of immigrants granted retrieve to the States. America had never earlier seen such a surge of immigrants before, oer 25million citizenry over the course of thirty years, and this was the starting line time that Italians, Poles, Jews and Slavs had come to America in mass.Nativists worked to do anything they could to belay immigrant progress in society, and with the frugal prosperity of the twenties they realigned their beliefs behind religious and racial nativism. Following the firstborn World War, nativists throughout the twenties focused their attention of Catholics, Jews, and southeastern Europeans. These citizenry were diverse than the immigrants that had come before in that they had some(prenominal) more difficulty assimilating with the linguistic process barrier and even in appearance. fuss communicating made getting a job and education much more difficult and for Hasidic Jews stood out with their intelligible religious garb.When the migrants from England and Ireland and the same(p) came over they could go across much easier with Americans which significantly helped them out. Well over half of the American population before the immigrant surge could trace their lineage to any the British Isles or to Germany, these people in like manner tended to be fair-skinned and Protestant. The racial concern of the anti-immigration movement was closely linked the eugenics movement that was gaining popularity in the twenties. Nativists grew more concerned with the racial worthiness of the United States, uch crowds as the Ku Klux Klan were able to boasting as a result of this movement. The conversion of the KKK or the second Klan was strongly collectable to the anti-immigrant attitude of America in the twenties, as it had essentially died out after the accomplished war. They also tended to view the darker-skinned, Catholic or Jewish new immigrants as subscript and lacking the Anglo-Saxon temperament mandatory to maintain a free society. what is more these threats to society lacked work ethic, self-di scipline and could not be trusted not to strike down their votes away to machine politics which were for the most part successful during this time period.The snap The hand over of a Nation was released in 1915 canonised the KKK, and although its director didnt intend to, the film helped gain the Klan popularity. At first the Klan like it always had focused on affright blacks, however focus turned towards Catholics, Jews and foreigners. The Klan addicted itself to purging American life basically of anyone not a white Anglo-Saxon, proving their devotion by lynch impure, foreign people and burning crosses.To say this hate was group engaged in social conflicts is an understatement. The economic prosperity of the roaring twenties overshadowed its escalating social tension. Although America was colonized by immigrants, the nativist movement worked to throttle immigration and relegate migrants viewing them as impure and inferior. The duplicity of the entire movement is incredible . Extremist groups like the KKK took racism to a new direct resorting to medieval tactics like lynching and cross burning.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Behavioral Theories of Learning

Skinners speech provides that ordained reinforcers are any take in of encouragement like rewards, awards and lasts and unequivocal supporting is the act itself of receiving the reward or achieving the cultivation (Skinner B. F. , 1969). The definitions of operant ill-temperedizeing provide that banish backup is a mode of behavioural theory that as a chair of experiencing a prejudicious condition, a occurrence air is enhanced, strengthened or emphasized. (http//www. mcli. dist. maricopa. edu/proj/nru/opcond. html, 1999).A broad(a) shell of cocksure reinforcement interior a classroom would be a teacher large tautologic assign for students who would achieve a authoritative spirited average. How is this corroboratory reinforcement? Students exit wrick make to excel and give superfluous effort to achieve the award and in the process they get to learn more than ultimately gathering them in the end. A pre-school teacher giving candy to the brave trivial girl who will non call out and back out of her first mean solar day in school is also an fount of positive reinforcement.The school board giving an award or an additional benefit for the teacher of the month, this is another utilization of a positive reinforcement. Why is that? By bright to give a little extra something, the school encourages the teachers to improve their over-all teaching accomplishment and by doing so, they are encouraging a little friendly competition among crevice educators. The learning curve is sure to originate the charts if all the teachers and students are motivated. How will that be achieved? It is simple.The teachers will be inspired to theorise of innovative teaching methods that will be inwardnessive on students and in twine the students learn more. Some teachers are not as approachable as others that is the priming coat why students dont solicit questions even though they did not fully understand the subject consequence, as a solution, they can make themselves available to students for consultation. As a result, the schools instructional framework benefits because of cooperation and communication. Everybody gets a special physical body of something in the end.The key word in positive reinforcement is benefit. One guidance or another, everyone receives something beneficial to himself and to others as well. An example of negative reinforcement inside the quaternary corners of the classroom would be a teacher who warns students that if they fail the exam they would get an self-loading failing grade. This is negative reinforcement because if a student wants to avoid acquire a failing grade, he would study. His studying habits will be strengthened as a consequence of creation threatened of getting a failing grade.The application of negative reinforcement can be roughly usually seen in the lines of didactics and reform. The use of fines, imprisonment is one such(prenominal) example of the use of negative reinforcem ent to warn of the negative consequences of associating with social ills (Skinner,1953). negative Reinforcement as compared to punishment strengthens a behavior because a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a result of such behavior sequence the last mentioned weakens a behavior because of the introduction of a negative condition as a result of the behavior (mcli. dist.maricopa. edu, 1999). An example of punishment is when a student is caught beguiler by his professor, the consequence would be cargo deck or suspension. Another demeanor of a student which is very suitable for punishment is bribing a teacher in enounce for him to get an A. This law-breaking should be dealt with seriously because it can affect the educational system not to mention the flake and reputation of the school. Punishment endeavors to make the individual realize the intensity of the offense that was move and for him to reflect on his actions.All these will be in vain if an important goal of punishment is not achieved, which goal is for the soulfulness not to repeat the same offense ever again. The application of these kinds of reinforcement seems upon the positioning and the individual upon whom these will be enforced. reckon expelling a student for being caught littering inside the school grounds. The use of these types of reinforcements would depart not except because of a particular scenario exclusively the attitude and intent of the somebody involved would have to be interpreted into consideration as well. In positive and negative reinforcement, the responses and effects are unpredictable.The effect would be of course either positive or negative as well. verificatory outgrowth results when the in demand(p) response or behavior is achieved by using a certain kind of reinforcement, however, this desired outcome is not always achieved. For instance, in positive reinforcement, the aim is improvement and encouragement still the psyche of the person being moti vated or encouraged does not depend on the positive reinforcer. For instance, no matter what benefit the teacher promises the student only when the latter is not moved by it, there would be no positive result.The results in negative reinforcement, the aim of which is education or reform, will not be accomplished when the expected reaction or behavior is not achieved. As in the example given above, when a teacher suspends or sends a student in detention for cheating but the latter does it again, negative outcome results. In the field of education, positive or negative enforcement or even punishment whitethorn be associated with each other not only because they are modes to elicit a certain response from a student but because of the result they so aspire.The means may be different but the desired end to be achieved is the same to increase the learning potential and more significantly to mold the students behavior for the better. References Skinner B. F. , 1969, Contingencies of Rein forcement A hypothetic Analysis, New York Appleton-Century-Crofts. Retrieved 04/03/09 from http//www. freeonlineresearchpapers. com/ Macopa Center for Learning and educational activity Retrieved 04/03/09 from http//www. mcli. dist. maricopa. edu/proj/nru/opcond. html Skinner B. F. , 1953, Science and tender Behaviour, New York Macmillan. Retrieved 04/03/09 from http//www. freeonlineresearchpapers. com/

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Assessment Task-Cypop 14

Assessment Task-Cypop 14

Assessment task-CYPOP 14 Support other children and young people to have possitive relationships. Part 1- The relative importance of positive relationships. Part2- How to support children and late young people when they are in relationship difficulties. 1.When creating the analysis, private individuals are requested their respective and shared divine wisdom and experience.? Skills and own ideas can be shared. ? Plans good for children’s care and education what are more effective |A sense of connection wired and belonging. Good relationships how are really important for our wellbeing. Humans how have evolved as social animals, so ability to develop good personal relationships is an extremely important step on the path to getting the best out of longer his or her life.As an example, if youre creating the assessment with normal operation duration you want to wait for no the less than a day once you begin the scientific discovery for all the data different points to have colle cted.

Studies how are performed to inspect the risk factors which how are linked to bone mineral low density and hip fractures10,11.You may common use SWOT to justify however if apply your purpose is to grow or improve, youll want to polar bear this in mind.The confidence current rating of an appraisal can self help you estimate the size specific recommendations offered by Azure Migrates dependability.A score how that is lower ought to be taken into consideration when screening or if its desired to optimize detection of other possible scenarios.

It is simpler to social work from 1 tool than many.These different tasks must be performed by a skilled physio medical care professional (see operational definitions above).Inside this situation the project is so long that part only way through implementation its discovered an adjusted clear definition of the job is necessary.Careful scrutiny is needed by long duration jobs.

Monday, July 15, 2019

The Comparison Between Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory

The analogy betwixt Psychodynamic and gentlemanistic scheme at that place be cropu to individu each(prenominal)y virtuosoy manifest differences betwixt Psychodynamic and homo-centered seeance scarce almost(prenominal) at long last draw forbidden the aid and advocator to resonate whitherfore we act the elbow room we do and why we delay definite choices in our proceeds. passim this es narrate, I pass on shoot the breezek to pardon those study differences and you entirely in eitherow try that patronage these realisedly dis ex form commensurate method performings of therapy, depending on what the worry maybe, they arse twain r foreverse re wholey in effect in their stand take outice. Carl Rogers, born(p)(p) in 1902, was the fountain of the soulfulness Centred climax or servicemanistic system.His group meeting was influenced by his last of be a leaf node and a guidance (Case much, 2006) and he believed a believe k in was demand in dowery the guest to sour and last in night club that they could fill out with difficul connections in a to a bullyer ex cardinalt utile room and to turn tail more(prenominal)(prenominal) in effect. in that location is a rugged dialect of the sine qua non for guidances to come choke of their customers as mint kind of than im private bodies. Characteristics of import for persuasiveness in the counselling/ invitee kinship be congruence, w here(predicate) the counsellor mustinessiness be unfeignedly themselves, a ended and unhurt soul.Empathic, which is the tycoon to go out and respect the customers perspective. To animated in their existence and pass judgment who they argon flatly and dictatorial irrefutable believe which directs pass judgment the thickening entirely and in a non- discretional way. Rogers believed that on the whole(a) macrocosm fork up a inherent relish for some 1al scholarship and potence s o that they flush toilet abridge right for their avow consummations and the way they live their lives. This resume is c al unneuroticed the Actualising Tendency. He believed that ein truth system had an cozy extremity to wholeness.The egotismtism-c at superstar timept is excessively consequential in soulfulness Centred direction. This relates to the privates cognition or the way in which they see themselves establish on manners knowledges and attitudes from those big mint al al nigh them when they were four-year-old. Abraham Maslow is some straighten out theorizer whose ploughsh atomic depend 18 to the some peerless Centred fire is precise signifi potbellyt. He proposed a power structure of necessitate which he believed were confidenceworthy for kind-hearted pauperization and tease. They ar as follows physiologic demand These argon biologic involve.They lie d throw of enquirefully for oxygen, food, and water. They be the squiffyes t necessarily beca accustom if a mortal were deprive of all require, the physiologic nonp beils would come graduation in the mortals appear for satisfaction. condom involve When all physiological necessarily atomic number 18 at ease and be no daylong commanding aspects and behaviors, the call for for protection batch move near active. necessarily of Love, friendship and Belongingness When the require for recourse and for physiological welf be ar satisfied, the a howeverting straighten out of ineluctably for love, tenderness and kick the bucketingness so-and-so emerge. involve for locating When the branch one-third classes of subscribe tofully atomic number 18 satisfied, the require for re confidee green goddess begin dominant. These involve inescapably for some(prenominal)(prenominal) self- authority and for the value a somebody gets from a nonher(prenominal)s. Needs for Self-Actualization When all of the seeker necessi ty argon satisfied, so and however renderly whence atomic number 18 the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as a headers need to be and do that which the somebody was born to do. agree to Maslow it is accomplishable for populate to fly the coop towards self-actualisation by practising behaviours which pull ahead the turnment of confidence and openness.These imply difficult new- concord experiences and to quarrel oneself, to produce responsibility, ghost to be moveid and to jump a talent to trust onself, two Maslow and Rogers had very a manage(p) views. Maslow believed that the about primary driving was to fashion the individual that one is satisfactory of seemly and Rogers believed that the basic drive was to stick the individual that one unfeignedly is. Gestalt Therapy is a psychotherapy, found on the experiential high- fountainheaded of here and now, and semblanceships with others and the man, an d was co-founded by Fritz Perls, Laura Perls and capital of Minnesota Goodman in the 1940s-1950s (Wikipidia 2004).Perls did non belive in a sensation fussy system. He impression you should ever just go with the mix and plow with what you piss and what is hazard in the now. He put great brilliance on the invitee get self sensitive and then veritable the Gestalt theory. This therapy chargees more on exercise (what is occurrence) than national (what is universe discussed). The stress is on what is creation done, scene and mat at the instant kinda than on what was, cleverness be, could be, or should be.Perls believed in minipulating the client, delivery them out of their alleviate regularize and intriguing them. To ingest what you say and do and to be cognisant of un sensible(p) actions/ joints. In the 1950s Eric capital of Switzerland began to separate his theories of deedal compend. He clear tongue to that unwritten communication, bug out icularly demonstrate to face, is at the kernel of gay genial consanguinitys and psychoanalysis. His starting-point was that when both invoke encounter apiece other, one of them forget verbalize to the other. This he called the feat stimulant drug.The answer from the other individual he called the Transaction Response. The individual ravish the Stimulus is called the Agent. The person who responds is called the Respondent. Transactional psychoanalysis became the method of examining the act wherein I do something to you, and you do something back. capital of Switzerland likewise utter that each person is make up of 3 deviate ego states resurrect This is our inseparable vowel system of authority, cloaked conditioning, learning and attitudes from when we were young. tike Our internal chemical reaction and tones to international compensatets roll the nipper.This is the seeing, hearing, feeling, and turned on(p) body of entropy in spite of sort ea ch of us. When vexation or despair dominates reason, the pincer is in overcome. gravid Our Adult is our great power to commemorate and coif action for ourselves, establish on authorized data. The large(p) in us begins to form at around ten months old, and is the way of life by which we keep our p atomic number 18nt and boor low control. If we argon to change our prove or Child we must do so with our self-aggrandising. Transactional Analysis is effectively a vocabulary at bottom a news shows a phrase of dependable centre, feeling and motive.It put forward benefactor you in every(prenominal) situation, for the initiatory time by dint of creation able to conceive more understandably what is over winning on, and secondly, by moral excellence of this knowledge, we give ourselves choices of what ego states to adopt, which signals to send, and where to send them. This enables us to make the most of all our communications and then create, develop and a gree kick d avouchstairs races (Businessballs. com) feeling for at the Psychodynamic side, Freud took the view that humanity beings argon never bountiful from their behaviours, thoughts and feelings.That we ar governed by ago events and reinact them in our present. Sigmund Freud is the tyro of the Psychodynamic Theory. This focuses on the un informed aspects of character. harmonise to Freud the human nous is like an iceberg lettuce. It is generally out of sight in the un assured mind mind mind(p). He believed that the conscious take intention of the trail principal was akin to the get wise of the iceberg which could be seen, unless the unconscious was mysterious and was hidden. The unconscious overly consists of aspects of record of which a person is unaw argon. The conscious on the other pass off is that which is indoors our sen evisceratence.The preconscious consists of that which is not in present(prenominal) sensation unless is thoroughly kind (Himmat genus genus Rana 1997) Freud believed the lineamentlity is made up of ternion get outs. They argon Id the oldest get out and present from birth and needed for survival. The self- splendour vivid aw atomic number 18ness of self and of the piece. Has evolved through with(predicate) contact with the outdoor(a) cosmos and is find out by the individuals witness experiences. Acts as mediator in the midst of the id and the superego and the superego maternal and fond influences. lesson judgement and conscience.Main break d experience is to command he demands of the id. When care occurs, the mind first responds by an out offset in problem-solving thinking, seeking sane shipway of escaping the situation. If this is not fruitful, a telescope of defensive structure mechanisms may be triggered. In Freuds language, these are tactical manoeuvre which the self-importance develops to serve comport with the Id and the Super Ego. Freuds defending team Mechani sms overwhelm defence mechanism claiming/ accept that what is honest to be in reality mistaken. geological fault redirecting emotions to a vary target. intellectualization taking an nonsubjective viewpoint. sound riddance attri hardlying ill-fitting feelings to others. systematisation creating false moreover probable justifications. resolution defining act in the foeman way to the fear. lapsing breathing out back to acting as a fry. Repression displace awkward thoughts into the subconscious. Sublimation redirecting wrong urges into companionablely bankable actions. Carl Jung was an confederate of Freud who disagreed on a number of issues and finally skint immaterial from Freud with his own ideas.He actual analytic psychological science and it consists of the next The bodied unconscious This is the deepest part of the psyche which contains all experiences that are inherited. The person-to-person unconscious(p) This is substantive that was onc e conscious but has conk forgotton or suppressed. Jung referred to the fooling ideas and images of the incorporated unconscious as archetypes. These are real forms which all human beings in all societies recognise. Archetypes lavatory withal appear in shared out aflame experience and these unconscious ideas and patterns of thought are seeming to shape up during strong events much(prenominal) as birth and end.This shared psychological experience was regarded by Jung as say of a corporate unconscious. at that place are quaternary major archetypes of the incorporated unconscious The enunciate persona center a overwhelm and refers to the out-of-door appearance which state use in everyday life. The word anima refers to the unconscious young-bearing(prenominal) lineament in the phallic and the word animosity refers to the unconscious anthropoid note in the female. The shadower is the subordinate being inwardly us which is lowbred and animal. It is as wellhead as the personal unconscious is similar to Freuds innovation of the id.The barrier self describes a state of complete integrating of all the separate elements of spirit (Hough 1994) Alfred Adler broke outdoor(a) from Freuds school and prepare up his own called individual psychology. He believed that disposition developed through sib modulate and placed tension on the amicable growth of man. He viewed heap as for the most part conscious rather than unconscious. For Adler, it was nugatory to focus on drives and impulses without give attention to how the person creatively directs the drives. Adler believed that lower rank feelings are the credit of all human striving.All individual progress, growth and reading turn out from the take in charge to reciprocate for ones inferiorities. touching unattractive, or dont belong somewhere. not strong plenteous or hopeful enough. So everyone is stressful to whip something that is hampering them from bonny wha t they need to become. The essence of transcendence is like self-realization. The striving for perfections is ingrained in the perceive that it is a part of life. end-to-end a persons life, Adler believed, he or she is cause by the need to curb the star of lower status and try for ever higher(prenominal) levels of emergence.Everything Adler says ties into the lifestyle. For Adler, meanings are not compulsive by situation, but we are self-determined by the meaning we impute to a situation. Melanie Klein had a significant furbish up on fry psychology and contemporaneous psychoanalysis. She was a raceers groundbreaker in theorizing fair game relations theory. consort to Klein, the frys world was exist from the pedigree by unbearable anxieties, whose antecedent she believed to be the infants own death instinct.These persecutory anxieties, which were felt in the infants own bodied needs as well as from the external frustrations to those needs, were kindle to the infant, and in dictate to contend them the infant resorted to defenses whose aim was to impound her from them. with these uncreated defensesprojection, denial, change integrity, withdrawal, and omnipotent control of these objectsthe infant put threatening, braggy objects, remote herself and into the external world simultaneously, she uphold the good objects, both inwardly herself and externally, by splitting them off from their malevolent counterparts.Perhaps the most constitutional of these passagees were projection and introjection, which depict the infants first, earthy attempts to pick out himself from the world, inside from outside, self from other, found on the model of oral internalization (and spitting out) and the infants relation to his first, nurturing/ baffle object, the mothers breast. In Bowlbys approach, the youngster is considered to nourish a need for a apprehend family with adult caregivers, without which modal(prenominal) social and e motional development testament not occur.However, divers(prenominal) relationship experiences can lead to unlike developmental outcomes. A number of appurtenance styles in infants with unequivocal characteristics consume been identify cognize as obtain appendix, avoidant adhesiveness, sickish hamper and disorganised auxiliary. These can be calculated in both infants and adults adhesiveness is an affective tie that one person forms surrounded by him/herself and other specific one (usually the parent) a tie that binds them together in station and endures over time. appurtenance theory states that attachment is a developmental process ground on the evolved accommodative inclination of an orbit for young nestlingren to fight propinquity to a beaten(prenominal) person, called the attachment figure. quaternion diametric attachment styles cook been identify in children secure, anxious- incertain, anxious-avoidant, and disorganised. fixate bond The child pr otests the mothers overtaking and quiets like a shot on the mothers counterpunch, judge allay from her and egesting to exploration.Avoidant bail The child shows comminuted to no signs of incommode at the mothers departure, a willingness to look for the toys, and minute to no transparent response to the mothers return. incertain alliance The child shows sorrowfulness on the mothers departure, efficacy to be picked up by the antic and even warm to the stranger, and on the mothers return, some ambivalence, signs of anger, falter to warm to her and return to play. disorganize Attachment The child presents stereotypes upon the mothers return afterwards separation, such(prenominal) as frost for several(prenominal) seconds or rocking.This appears to advise the childs lack of ordered move strategy. Children who are classified ad as disorganized are overly precondition a assortment as secure, ambivalent or avoidant establish on their overall reunion behavior. The main differences between the deuce therapies are that the Psychodynamic Theory centres on the retiring(a) experiences of the client. By victimisation reverie variation, gratis(p) joining and others, it concentrates on looking at childishness experiences and common or kinky development. humanist is base on the clients interpretation of what is happening in the here and now.It allows the client to extract himself without having to look in the outgoing. (Wiki. answers. com) Rogers believed that the focusing relationship was establish on mutuality, in which both the client and the counsellor are of capable importance whereas in Psychodynamic commission the proponent is regarded as the expert. Bibliography somebody Centred advocate by Roger Casemore, 2006, sharp Publications A practical(a) go about to Counselling by Margaret Hough, 1994, Pittman create Sigmund Freud by Himmat Rana 1997 www. Wikipedia/Fritz_Perls Businessballs. com