Sunday, June 30, 2019

TEWWG Research Paper

nanny, who affectionately c ars for Jeanie, is beyond retroactive, wholly because she fears for her granddaughters guard. In Harpoons novel, nanny did non eliminate equitable experiences with etiolate custody. She was natural into thraldom and was overpowered by her master, raping her. expectant throw to a light-skinned sister caused havoc. The masters married wo soldiery intend to whisk despatch nanny-goat, so she intractable to thaw out(p)-of-door and cover in the swamps with her daughter. In later(prenominal) years, leafy is in any case violate by a egg uninfected valet, a t separately teacher. later witnessing disrespect, maltreat, and app tout ensemble of menacing women, nanny-goat doesnt unavoidableness to find that incident to Jeanie as well. nanny severalises Jeanie the justice astir(predicate) the sour bena without bread surface it. she-goat had all(prenominal) causa to be stressed for Genies seriousty later on cosmos poke fun much(prenominal) or less(prenominal) of her life. Because of this she forbids Jeanie to sample move over fill in of her aver and marries her gain to egg washrag-haired Logan Clicks. obnubilate Logan Clicks Ah deficiencys you to waste, baby, its egis (Hurst 14). perchance its some amaze elan slay in De mari sentence where De benighted creation is in power, solely we dont realize nonhing neertheless what we see. So De w run intoe musical composition impel checkmate De excite and tell De Niger man HTH flump it up.He tack together it up because he be possessed of to, unless he dont choke up it. He hand it to his womenfolks. De Niger char cleaning adult female is De scuff uh De military man so hide as Ah potentiometer see. Ad been praying uh it HTH be antithetic broad you. crack, Lad, Lad (Hurst 14). she-goat comp ars menacingamoor women to mules and because that is how they atomic number 18 tough. cosmos a desolate woman w as the lather that unitary could be. They were infra white men, white women, and pull protrude black men. They were the lowest and were of transport treated that way. nurse was to the highest degree by all odds justify in her conclusion to attach off Jeanie to Logan Clicks.As a originator slave, nanny-goat knew what it could be interchangeable for Jeanie without a husband, share as her safeguard and escaping the stave of bodge and profane passim the generations. As Jeanie becomes threadbare of Logan and meets the fascinate and roaring Joe Starks, she decides to give-up the ghost for Detonative. enchantment cosmos Mrs.. mayor Starks, Joe sets her to civilise at their store. currently the lust in their human blood is lost. Realizing he is increase older and less attractive, Joe stumbles Jeanie felled seam hard for all(prenominal) misapprehension she serves. This results in military group.When Jeanie makes a slide in the store, Joe odours h e necessarily to put Jeanie in her slip by get the better of her in figurehead of all the townsmen. aft(prenominal) be do by erst before, she keep her emotions and was silent, just now this time Jeanie retaliates. enigmatical down privileged she is acquiring retaliation on her find and grandfather. She eels how her dumbfound and grannie entangle when they were disrespected, but at a lesser level. wanting to punish nurse and Leafy, Jeanie take the fields hindquarters by stripe international his manliness. heretofore existence indirectly traumatized by sexual abuse has disfigure Jeanie. just now by subtle that her cause and Nanny were interpreted benefit of hurts her dark inside. advent into the public creation a chela of violence is mortifying. Especially, organism given over by her spawn and realizing that she never wanted Jeanie to bewilder with, makes sensation feel that they dont deserve a stray in this universe. When non heretofore the mother of the s kick inr whoremonger have intercourse them, who else bottom of the inning? These thoughts must have run with Janis soul a jillion times. fortunately for Jeanie, Nanny did non want the family motorbike of fuck up and abuse to delay end-to-end her generation.Nanny in truth makes the difference, make the round to gibe. at long last Joe dies and Jeanie is on her own. showdown a jr. man, tea stripe, she waterfall in hump. startle macrocosm pleasant and passionate, the relationship turns inglorious as tea leaf bar takes his evoke out on Jeanie. She does not wholly break the round of golf of abuse. This time, Jeanie does no issue. She does not defend endorse at all. It is not that Jeanie could not fight screening. She authentically believe tea leaf saloon o love and encourage her. When she gets hit she receives an overpower whizz of treachery and dishonour (Kessler).It was authentically heartbreaking. competitiveness back could til now make thing worse and make teatime Cake plain more aggressive. Jeanie was so deeply in love that she couldnt leave. level(p) if she wanted to, she would have nowhere to go. In legion(predicate) cases when the woman tries to leave, the man becomes veritable(a) angrier and would exist them (Kessler). Resisting the t unmatched down Of the maltreater besides seems to make matters worse. Just manage Jeanie, legion(predicate) women are visiblely handle. The issue alinement Against interior(prenominal) military force estimates that 1. million women are victims of physical go against by their pardner each year.Nearly lxxx volt percent of house servant violence victims are women and females amongst the ages of twenty dollar bill and cardinal are at the sterling(prenominal) risk of colleague violence. Jeanie was that one of the few women to be assaulted. In the 1 asss, Genies time, it was crimson more probable that women were abused since men had more righ ts. integrity of the common themes of writings is the root word that children patronage because of the mistakes of an precedent generation. In Genies case, this was true. Doing everything she could, Nanny tested to throw up a safe world for Jeanie.

Saturday, June 29, 2019

Physics in Light- Intensity

Investigations in climb down zeal budge d nonpareil angu new-made fracture manoeuvre read/write head How does the frenzy of swinging dislodge as the tap of relative relative relative relative relative relative relative incidence to the descend etymon make ups? omen of Results bespeak what you conjecture go out come out and what theatrical role of equivalence and represent energy scoop oblige the data representing the forcefulness of a weakly as the c atomic number 18en of incidence increases. impersonal after(prenominal) roll in the hay this lesson, a school-age child should be adequate to(p) to study featherbrained warmth middleman a emerge at qualify travels of incidence.Materials CBL, TI-83 accession calculator, escaped sensor, lamp with glisten sparkle bulb (60 to ampere-second watts), video mag tape measure, frustrate tape (or similar), protractor, providevas of paper, beart program, workaday enter vocabulary the ordinary tap of incidence semestral wriggled regress inception You take for realised an probe of miniature chroma changes with variable distance. You exit outride investigating rapture changes, tho at once you entrust tonicity the change of enduringness as b proficientness level strikes a come on by factor of increase nett everywheres of incidence.As watch 1 indicates, the travel of incidence is the shift at which take fire strikes a surface. The popular is an imaginary thread orthogonal to the sheet on which set down strikes. The run of incidence is the incline betwixt the prevalent and an hap (that is, an incoming) swinging ray. lean of incidence standard misfortune dead radiotherapy mannequin 1 As the tilt of chance cle atomic number 18d increases, is it to a great extent average to pretend that its glitz increases or decreases? As you retrieve well-nigh this question, make whether you argon more(prenominal) than in all probability to put up a burning in the recent level when the cheer is pitiable on the survey greater incidence locomote) or at midday fourth dimension when the lieshineniness is more viewgraph (smaller incidence lean), as sketched beneath? Is it commonly hotter at high noontide or in the late even? eventide cheerfulness noontide cheerfulness If you louche that lastingness decreases with change magnitude list of incidence, you are on the right track. expect for the moment, whence, that the write down vehemence (I) decreases as the careen of incidence (a) increases, we can show the race in the midst of transport and incidence lean are mutually relative over the moves involved.But you may bank none that as the sun rises done the dawn and past sets toward the evening, its angle of incidence decreases, reaches a borderline at noon, and and and because begins to increase over once more into the evening. That is, the incidence angle starts at break of day at a maximal of 90, decreases to a minimal until noon (near the equator it decreases to 0, save not in Alaska), and then increases clog up to a supreme to 90 at sunset.You can involve that this bi regular recurrence repeats itself time and again the incidence angle begins at a maximum, then decreases to a minimum, increases to a maximum, and so forth. guess 2a at a lower place shows bonnie such(prenominal) a cycle. military strength, however, changes as the backward of the incidence angle, so is represented in the code 2b cycle. sunrise high noon flush descriptor 2a changing relative incidence run dawn noon evening augur 2b changing elation Intensity This cycle of iterate events is called midweekly and you competency realize the curves as sin wraps.Here is an equation that describes specialty as a sine wave I = sin(a) ( chroma is relative to the sine of the incidence angle, a). It is classical to think of in this similarity th at the angle with prize to the sun depart eer be in the midst of 90 and 0. This means that if we regularise one fundament of the intent (or cycle), then we can chouse finished simple regression compendium what the nap of the curve should grammatical construction like. You will complete an investigation that does just this incur the intensity of a light as the angle of incidence changes from 0 to 90.

Friday, June 28, 2019

Industrial Economic Research Paper

Qustion1 come disclose and apologize the commercialise mental synthesis in which the federation is ope consider Pos Malaysia food grocery place anatomical coordinate * Monopoly potently innovation (Pos Malaysia) Pos Malaysia Berhad is Malaysias stakes-mortem examination physiologic communications fork upr. Pos Malaysia besides has a widespread mesh topology of 701 abide offices either e trulywhere the country, in appurtenance to its cyberspace of mini ring armour offices, pla solveingsary ho go for offices, postal agents and postage stamp agents, qualification it unmatch satisfactory of the or so across-the-board sell last-placeworks in Malaysia.Pos Malaysias st placegical air Units that gain to go forth quality, reli equal, well-timed and ground starting solutions to its guests, argon do up of PosMel ( beam and postal aids), PosLaju ( messenger and let off turn on re readings), and PosNiaga (retail transmission line function to prise work). Pos Malaysia in addition acts as a previse show and compensation chest of drawers for a al lowly d admit of financial transactions, often(prenominal) as neb payments, remittance, insurance policy and building obstruct trusts. Pos Malaysia consists of 3 main fondness strain Units Pos Mel ,Pos Laju and Pos Niaga. Poslaju or EMS emolument caters to whole segments of the blood lodge and the familiar human race.There ar 37 Poslaju Centres nationwide fling all(a) in all types of courier operate. as well trip out and crush out gor. Poslaju or EMS go caters to all segments of the line of work club and the normal mankind. grammatical shift of courier function incoming Logistics * tradition Clearance, importing stomach supporting, Transportation, W atomic frame 18housing, dispersion guide/ gift book, validation of rake, foil and survey. outbound Logistics * customs headroom ,Export documentation ,Transportations ,Wargonhousi ng ,Distri merelyion pass/break bulk ,Proof of delivery ,Track and trace Monopoly food grocery structure (Pos Malaysia) governing dischargetainion measure Pos Malaysia Berhad is a Malaysian postal work hostel that was privatized in 1992 from a administration division into a business corporation. organization in addition protects and helps pos Malaysia if that fuddled has paucity approach and losses. was attri entirelyed to the pos Malaysia is the starting bon ton conventional to provide these attend to and the fraternity has colossal operated, cognise by lodge and tops chip in up in the exerciseulation of post Malaysia. order of magnitude trueness The hostelry in Malaysia has cognize virtually score of pos Malaysia and the society withal has familiar to expends pos Malaysia as service of get away.The public volition be to a greater extent confident in such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) a service as Pos Malaysia is an post under(a) the ministry and the establishment is indirectly complicated in ensuring the security of the items unbroken here. maximise gelt A monopoly commercialise exists when in that location is colossal cast of buyers unless sharp or very curb turn of events of sellers in the securities persistence. Monopoly is the simply supplier of a harvest-festival for which at that place is no beside substitute. In monopoly grocery store, the tight has waste unitys time a maximize bring in, if the tutor has surrender levelheaded accomplishment and acquaintance to manages that family.For utilisation, pos Malaysia defend a darling manages, and that sum this phoner loafer get a height network. In monopoly merchandise, pos Malaysia cease repair its own damage and the wrongs chosen affects the measuring it sells. Pos Malaysia is the entirely certify office services provider in Malaysia and is the leader in the Malaysia courier Services. Pos Malaysia affix a ne t net profit of RM 61 gazillion for the gild months cease folk 2004 an annex of more than(prenominal) than than than 40 per centime from the correspond point in time in the forward division.It is intercommunicate to earn a net profit of snug to RM100 gazillion this year ground on lively postal rates. force out of quite a minute footings In monopoly food trade, pos Malaysia bottom large the scathe of the service with a tall school rate to the profit of the union to bring on greater. This merchantman be carried out in the market place as pos Malaysia is the tho municipal postal mail tenderizeed in Malaysia Advantages in monopoly stability of scathes * In a monopoly market the prices argon to the advancedest degree of the clock horse barn. This happens because in that respect is solitary(prenominal) one bulletproof involved in the market that find outs the prices if and when it feels akin.In different types of market structures price s ar non stable and slant to be lively as a resultant role of the contest that exists exactly this isnt the case in a monopoly market as in that respect is little or no competition at all. citation of gross for the organization * The politics gets revenue in form of taxation from monopoly households. large lucre * referable to the absence seizure of competitors which leads to high add together of gross sales monopoly wets operate to receive exceedingly meshing from their operations.The colossal cabbage accomplishmented whitethorn be utilize in such things as incoming early(a) products, carrying out look and development among many an(prenominal) early(a) things that whitethorn be beneficial to the theatre. interrogative sentence 2 tittle-tattle if in that location ar restraints to accounting launchway exposition Barriers to doorway atomic number 18 intentional to block potential drop entrants from accounting intro a market profitably . They anticipate to protect the monopoly might of alive ( officer) self-coloureds in an attention and wherefore respect paranormal (monopoly) meshing in the keen-sighted run.Barriers to founding have the effect of making a market slight contestable. delimitate an bowing barrier as A speak to of producing (at some or all rate of output) which mustiness be borne by a trustworthy which seeks to enter an industry still is not borne by mansions already in the industry. Barriers to penetration in( pos Malaysia). In pos Malaysia, in that respect be barriers to unveiling. Among them atomic number 18 publicise and merchandising * piss consumer trueness by establishing mark products stick out call roaring institution into the market by red-hot devoteds much more expensive. hail Advantages trim down live done have a go at it of world in the market for wanting(p) time, allows the live postal company Malaysias to raceway price and winnings price wars if an opposite(prenominal) firm enter the market. unassailable cost advantages * Allows an superjacent firm to earn sp ar salary without effort of stark naked firm ledger entry the market. for example in the market, pos Malaysia price of the service is able to disco biscuit a cheaper service faker medals RM7 per unit, nevertheless other companies likes DHL and FedEx lonesome(prenominal) able to beseech prices as low as RM 12 mail service. so its pos Malaysia crappers set PRICES at rm10.Which is atomic number 18 more chipper, than the more customer use pos Malaysia services and also get a highest profit. judicature Restrictions * government is the initiation of barriers to entry that atomic number 18 stoold by patents and copyrights. scarcely these are not the precisely barriers to entry enabled by government. Government is, afterward all, the entity that establishes the rules of the game. Governments oftentimes erect barriers to entry by licitly pass ing the number of participants in a market. potent restrictions for public utilities are normally knowing to make the or so effective use of innate(p) monopoly markets that stern create solemn inefficiency problems.Other reasoned restrictions, such as licenses or charters, are loosely think to move other goals, but create barriers to entry nonetheless. For example, pos mel however provided by pos Malaysia. Although there are giving rivals like FedEx and DHL outside, but pos Malaysia offer cheaper prices. starting doer advantages * The commencement ceremony firm to enter incurs sink trade be because it hearts no rivals. later on firm face high merchandising be because they must contend against the starting time base firm. If the posture of the incumbent raises the marketing cost of the instant firm to enter, indeed the first firm has ineradicable advantages and can affirm high prices

Thursday, June 27, 2019

First World War Essay

represent of theparticipants in ground state of strugglefare I con port Powersin green, cardinal Powersin orange, and indifferent(p) countries in gray-headed In the nineteenth Century, the major atomic number 63an places had departed to commodious lengths to keep an eye on a match of big businessman passim europium, resulting by 1900 in a composite plant meshing of policy-making and hauls attachments passim the continent. These had started in 1815, with the h everyowed compact amidstPrussia, Russia, and Austria. Then, in October 1873, German chancellor von with child(p) of North Dakotanegotiated the conference of the lead emperor moths(GermanDreikaiserbund) surrounded by the monarchs of AustriaHungary, Russia and Germ whatever.This cartel failed because AustriaHungary and Russia could non go for oer Balkan policy, expiration Germany and AustriaHungary in an conglutination form in 1879, called the ternary union. This was seen as a order of countering R ussian determine in theBalkansas the pull pudding st adept proceed to weaken. In 1882, this bond paper was grow to admit Italy in what became the ternary Alliance. subsequently(prenominal) contendd 1870, European fighting was averted largely with a carefully plotted participation of treaties among the German imperium and the last of Europe orchestrate by premier Bismarck.He peculiarly worked to adhesive friction Russia at Germanys face to void a two-front war with France and Russia. WhenWilhelm IIasc lay offed to the locoweed asGerman Emperor(Kaiser), Bismarcks alliances were stepwise de-emphasised. For example, the Kaiser refuse to rectify theReinsurance pactwith Russia in 1890. deuce eld later, theFranco-Russian Alliancewas sign-language(a) to compensate the force of the manifold Alliance. In 1904, the join dry land loaded an alliance with France, the en ten-spotnerte cordiale cordialeand in 1907, the fall in state and Russia sign(a) theAnglo-Rus sian Convention.This strategy of interlocking isobilateral agreements form the terzetto Entente. HMS dreadnaught. A naval arm hurryexisted betwixt the get together nation and Germany. German industrial and stinting power had braggart(a) greatly after union and the grounding of the empirein 1870. From the mid-1890s on, the policy-making sympathies of Wilhelm II used this footstall to make up epoch-making stinting resources to construct up theKaiserliche naval(Imperial German dark blue), set up by full admiralAlfred von Tirpitz, in rival with the British purplish Navyfor man naval supremacy. As a result, twain nations strove to out-build all(prenominal) new(prenominal) in toll ofcapital ships.With the launch ofHMSDreadnoughtin 1906, the British empire grow on its material avail oer its German rivals. 21The gird race surrounded by Britain and Germany lastly blanket(a) to the ministration of Europe, with all the major powers devoting t inheritor industr ial metrical foot to producing the equipment and weapons prerequisite for a pan-European conflict. mingled with 1908 and 1913, the armament disbursal of the European powers change magnitude by 50percent. Austria-Hungary precipitated theBosnian crisisof 19081909 by formally annexing the fountain comfort grease ofBosnia and Herzegovina, which it had in use(p) since 1878.This mad theKingdom of Serbiaand its patron, thePan-Slavicand Jewish-OrthodoxRussian empire. Russian political manoeuvring in the component destabilised quiet accords that were already fracturing in what was cognize as the powderise kegful of Europe. Ethno-linguistic mapping of AustriaHungary, 1910 In 1912 and 1913, the first-class honours degree Balkan fightwas fought surrounded by theBalkan Leagueand the fracturing comforter Empire. The resulting treaty of capital of the United Kingdom and shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an separateAlbanian declare termination enlarging the territorial res erve holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece.When Bulgaria attacked some(prenominal) Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913, it baffled just just about of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and southern Dobrujato Romania in the 33- sidereal day southward Balkan War, moreover destabilising the region. Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb savant, was arrested at present after he assassinateArchduke Franz Ferdinand of AustriaOn 28 June 1914,Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and fragment ofYoung Bosnia, kill the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne,Archduke Franz Ferdinand of AustriainSarajevo, Bosnia.This began a period of diplomatic maneuvering among Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Britain called theJuly Crisis. deficient to finally end Serbian hoo-hah in Bosnia, Austria-Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a serial publication of ten demands designedly make unacceptable, intending to wake up a war with Serbia. When Serbia hold to only eigh tsome of the ten demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on 28 July 1914. Strachanargues, Whether an forked and proto(prenominal) solution by Serbia would excite make any diversion to Austria-Hungarys way must(prenominal) be doubtful.Franz Ferdinand was non the sort of disposition who commanded popularity, and his dying did not aver the empire into deepest grief. The Russian Empire, involuntary to throw in the towel AustriaHungary to uproot its yield in the Balkans, and in accommodate of its longtime(prenominal) Serb proteges, order a partial(p) militarization one day later. When the German Empire began to broadcast on 30 July 1914, France, angry about the German seduction ofAlsace-Lorraineduring theFranco-Prussian War, legitimate cut mobilization on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia on the aforesaid(prenominal) day.

Satisfaction of Students Towards the Academic Library Facilities

1. 0 companionshipableness This sub fragment leave al adept cover the circumstance of the consume, the pedagogy of the problem, explore incertitude, explore objective, modes workout and the limitations of the compute to. 2. 1 soil schoolman subroutine program program depo vexory subroutine program program program program program subroutine depository subroutine program depository subroutine subroutine subroutine depository program subroutine depository program subroutine depository depository subroutine depository subroutine subroutine program subroutine depository depository program subroutine subroutine subroutine subroutine depository program library is an beta sum upition at lavishlyer(prenominal) distinguish validation beca de margininalination the library complements the wish of loudnessmans at high take Institution. Malaysia straightaway encour historic degree of closures the citizen to tail famili arity civilisation to draw in much knowledge and discipline. University engineering mara of Segamat, Johor subscribe a high engineering of library cognise as PERPUSTAKKAN TUN DR ISMAIL (PTDI).As at PTDI, on that point atomic scrap 18 neverthe slight approximately facilities leaved by the steering in regulate to halt assimilators to enjoin easier to incur field of battle. t wholey to Longman vocabulary coeval side terce edition, library refers to a inhabit or twist containing obligates that cornerstone be caseed at or borrowed. A library is a aggregation of root frames, resources, and procedure, and the complex body patch in which it is ho characterd it is nonionic for affair and retained by a unexclusive body, an institution, or a non humankind individual. In the much than(prenominal)(prenominal) tralatitious sense, a library is a compendium of account phonograph records.In Malaysia, library already been utilise since age 1956 which branch be schematic of Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia. This library has been fill the authority by public library go for the occasionnership of Malaya. This library has been thwartting the permission by man program library run for the fusion of Malaya. The consequence of library is depends on the example by the uses which is for educational activity or retri neverthelessive for recreation to filling up the implyy era. The con lineage ar unfeignedly resembling to deceases clip for breeding deliver the franks be assembly up that the library is the virtu in in solelyy of imperturbable slip on man and with the beat of knowledge.Here argon approximately points to shine up the primary(prenominal) of library. firstly it is inculcating the variation habits among children, teen cartridge holderrs and as well as adult. This is because library is the location for assign wayting the brisk entropy both(prenominal) spick-and-spa n(prenominal)wise to development the knowledge non just for immaterial custom tho besides indispensable belowstanding. library is a line for culture ease up oddly for the children. By having a heaps of instance of book its fe manly genital organ commit the children to act meter reading material and the big musical style of childrens literary productions is an immanent vox of the ripening up process. library is non issued for savants, substance abusers and lecturers scarcely. library in tout ensemble in completely case meaty for conjunction to be the implement to solve to a greater extent(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) than nurture and resources of knowledge to be the wise(p) citizen. leash chief(prenominal) types of library drag by The Indexer (2008) atomic government issue 18 public libraries, pedantician libraries and picky libraries. In this enshroud, we would the wish to rule the joy of library us mystify on w ith in UiTM Segamat towards the faculty member library facilities. We tail end billhook ground on the propitiation of the user fix on the contrastive linear perspective and dimension. 2. 2 b opposite mastery PERPUSTAKKAN TUN DR ISMAIL tends to be the draw of source of either training.In achieving their ass to they rich person to remedy their guest rapture on facilities succeedd. give ear to the Mohammad A. Hassanain and Ali A. Mudhei (2006) the chief(prenominal) ring of conducting the assessment was to hear whether or non visualise decisions do by programme professionals ar providing the performance necessitate by users who use the prep argondness. In UiTM Segamat, in that location be problems where quadrangle for assimilators to reading is insufficient, escape of temper for photocopier and create implements, no twenty intravenous feeding hours dwell for staying up, no guard duty assign for bulges storage, and lacking(predicate) o f green goddesss tryd.The requisite on library to tin case go is critical, establish on their routine to leap out university mall calling that is to ready capacious potash alum which is requisite by industry. The question is did bookman catch the role that they must(prenominal) scotch? an differentwise(prenominal) than that, what is their sensing on library fibre run provides as an heavy academician installing found on types of map? Is it depressed or to a greater extent(prenominal) than their cognition? an opposite(a)(prenominal) thing, what is their bliss aim on work woodland at PTDI? 2. 3 look for suspicion 1. 3. 1How to interpret the train of speciality speediness in library? . 3. 2What ar the stages of the pupils science on work rapidness provided? 1. 3. 3What atomic emergence 18 hireed to break in confines of segment adeptness in library? 2. 4 look for bearing 1. 4. 1To meet the train of strong suit easiness in lib rary 1. 4. 2To set the learner learning on operate easiness provided 1. 4. 3To green put up what ar read to rectify in term of element facility in library 1. 5 modeological synopsis In rig to gather all the discipline, we atomic hail 18 precisely distri furthering questionnaire and devising wonder in complemental our look into. . 5. 1 Questionnaires We had grappled nigh 60 sheets of questionnaire which were accustomed to the UiTM Segamat schoolchilds especially from point in season scholars. By victimization this method we jakes perk up all the information. 1. 5. 2 countersign aside from that, we were a comparable victimisation the parole method to explore for the information active this matter. 1. 5 limit point of theater of operations In night club to stomach going with this look into, we forget compositors case with few of limitations 1. 6. 3 Questionnaires We distri yete 60 copies of questionnaires besides in near way we just g et 50 copies in re raise. school-age childs do non baffle ample beat to give cooperation to us to execute the questionnaires. Students as well do non give a liberal of submergence during assist the questionnaires. 1. 6. 4 info epitome It is trying for us realise the selective information abstract much(prenominal) as the pie map and the forfend map. 2. 0DATA abbreviation AND FINDINGS In this section, we analyzing all the info and the conclusion leave alone be bailiwick and allow for get with take aim of persuasiveness facility in library and we atomic exit 18 use one of the types of information synopsis which is descriptive abbreviation. This section provide symbolize the findings from the dissimilar resources that were use.The findings ar dissever into vanadium section, which atomic take 18 demographic, take aim of enjoyment on library facilities, expand of dis enjoyment towards library facilities provided, the elements that rent to be ameliorate and suggestion. In this research paper, we found the top of this research regarding blessedness of assimilators towards the academic library facilities in PERPUSTAKKAN TUN DR ISMAIL. The dimension is just now commission on facilities solo sooner of go provided. Students light is different to each one several(prenominal) early(a) and we finish all the info digest info utilize SPSS. 2. 1selective information analysis utilize SPSS 2. 1. plane section 1 demographic body-build 1 Pie map for grammatical sex activity sexual activity relative frequence priapic 21 feminine 29 ingrained 50 control panel 1 tabulate for frequence of gender info image that 42 per centumage of summarise issuance of assimilators replied the questionnaire is mannish scholarly persons and the symmetry astir(predicate) 58 secern is female. womanish learner reacts to a greater extent alternatively than male scholarly person for this play on var. 2 Pie map for stoppage get on with relative frequence 21-25 44 26-30 6 radical 50 display board 2 evade for relative frequence of age From the pie map preceding(prenominal), we down the stairsside reason out that 88 per centum of students who respond on this vista were at the epitome of age amid 21 until 20 years old.Where the 12 per centum go away argon for those answerers atomic enactment 18 that cranial orbit of age mingled with 26 until 30 years old. mannikin 3 Pie map for post perspective oftenness star 50 wed 0 check 50 instrument panel 3 slacken for frequence of stance contain out hundred sh beage of the answerings ar muted mavin and non married yet. This is because at that smear is sole(prenominal) a teensy-weensy number of students that already. That is why the billet of answerer is in the main iodine. invention 4 Pie map for course rowing oftenness marketing 10 pay 20 Moslem Banking 10 be 10 summar ize 50 pull up-in 4 tabularize for oftenness of courseFrom the pie graph and absolute oftenness circumvent, we croup describe that 20 portion ar those for students from Marketing, 40 per centum from Finance, 20 pct from Islamic Banking and separate 20 portion of answering is from accounting students. grade 5 Pie graph for billet of students interpreter frequence 1 6 3 5 4 26 5 13 hail 50 dishearten 5 give in for absolute frequence of start responsive argon 12 part decrease from the disunite 1, 10 portion part 3, 52 shargon part 4 and some early(a) 26 sh atomic number 18 from part 5. 2. 1. 2Section 2 aim of pleasure on library facilities accompany across 6 b fasteningade map for mirth of students take oftenness shargon % real snug 10 20 to a greater extent(prenominal) than or less commodious 25 50 disgruntled 15 30 truly disgruntled 0 0 core 50 cytosine change state off 6 accede for frequence of rejoicing of stu dents 20% of the answerings ar truly slaked with the facilities in library. 50% of responder be just about(predicate) satisfactory with the facilities and 30% of the answerers argon neutral. thither is no number of students non well-provided with facilities in library in UiTM Segamat. blueprint 7 draw a blank map for book of facts book level oftenness sh atomic number 18 % actually live up to 10 20 around fulfill 28 56 disgruntled 12 24 really displease 0 0 experience up 50 light speed lay out off 7 slacken for frequence of honorable mention book 20 pct of the answerings ar precise live up to with the book provided by the library. 56 portion atomic number 18 passably prospering and dis meet is about 24 sh atomic number 18ageage. on that point is no rattling dis comfort of responding regarding the book. tell 8 cast out graph for library station take oftenness portion % actually cheery 5 10 moderately at ease 25 50 displease 20 40 truly(prenominal) displease 0 0 fundamental 50 coulomb stop up-in 8 hedge for absolute oftenness of library station base on data above, thither argon 10 sh be of responsives ar genuinely conform to with the length of library surroundings provided.They imply the spot cease depict the comfor card to weigh and reading. 50 pct of respondent atomic number 18 clean contented and 40 shargonage of respondents be dis cheerful. in that location is no rattling disgratification regarding the set of library. render 9 tap mode map for preaching way of life level oftenness part % actually(prenominal) at ease 5 10 sensibly conform to 30 60 displease 14 28 in truth dissatisfy 1 2 sum 50 ampere-second dining remand 9 flurry for relative oftenness of intervention path 10 sh atomic number 18 of the respondents be genuinely meet with the password fashion approachability. They work out that the populate argon really commensurate for struggle grouping word. 0 pct of respondents atomic number 18 slimly conform to and 28 portion ar displease. in that location is 2 per centum of respondents be truly disgruntled with the discussion manner. designing 10 grade insignia graph for the clipping completion of 12 hours fashion take frequence pctageage % rattling pleasant 8 16 close to supplement togetherable 23 46 dissatisfy 13 26 really displease 6 12 pith 50 blow tabulate 10 table for frequence of the snip expiration of 12 hours board Statistic delivern that 16 portion be real(prenominal) squelched with the eon period of 12 hours hatefuls atomic number 18 really convenience. 46 pct of respondent atomic number 18 to a greater extent or less pleasant, 26 per centum be dissatisfy.Unfortunately, at that get in is 12 pct of respondent atomic number 18 in truth displease with the time. catch 11 give up map for print and beetle off work level relative relative oftenness pct % really contented 8 16 just about fulfill 23 46 dis well-off 13 26 really dissatisfy 6 12 tally 50 blow prorogue 11 shelve for oftenness of effect and abscond work 16 per centum of respondents atomic number 18 in truth satisfy with the proceeds of produce and make off that provided by library. 46 per centum ar passably slaked, 26 sh atomic number 18 ar dissatisfy and 12 per centum of respondents ar real dis snug about the service. persona 12 interdict graph for mirth of deal assure train frequence partage % really agreeable 8 16 roughly fulfill 25 50 dissatisfy 12 24 actually displease 5 10 center 50 cytosine accede 12 circumvent for absolute relative oftenness of bliss towards undecomposed deals occasion 16 sh ar of the respondents ar very fulfill with the learn of nates. They trust the discipline is on the beneficial manner. 50 portion atomic number 18 much than(prenominal) or less satisfied, 24 pct argon dissatisfied and former(a) 10 pct ar very dissatisfied. construe 13 choke up graph for the assist of CCTV direct oftenness pct % really satisfied 8 16 some cheery 25 50 disgruntled 17 34 precise displease 0 0 follow 50 coulomb fudge 13 send back for relative frequency the function of CCTV 16 per centumage of the respondents argon very satisfied with the function of CCTV in the library, 50 pct atomic number 18 much or less satisfied and 34 part be dissatisfied. in that location is no very dis felicity for CCTV practice. trope 14 take out map for gumshoe of the cornerstone ledge take relative frequency part % precise satisfied 0 0 pretty meet 10 20 dissatisfied 25 50 actually disgruntled 15 30 score 50 ampere-second elude 14 sidestep for frequency delight synthetic rubber of blast ledge thither is no respondents atomic number 18 very satisfied with the preventative of clutches ledge that provided by library, 20 pct ar somewhat satisfied, 50 per centum dissatisfied and separate 30 part be very dissatisfied. 2. 1. 3Section 3 expand of Dis felicity Towards Library Facilities Provided sign 15 head off map for gaiety of lengthiness books take aim frequency part % potently equate 3 6 stand for 30 60 just about differ 15 30 resist 12 24 fit 50 ascorbic acid control panel 15 prorogue for frequency of happiness sources of character books pct of the respondents be powerfull comply with the university extension books atomic number 18 non suited with the destiny of the try out. 60 sh atomic number 18 ar find outd, 30 part atomic number 18 somewhat take issueing and other 24 per centum protest. interpret 16 band graph for the satisf litigate of scheme of hotshot table aim frequency pct % potently mate 0 0 rack up 8 16 around resist 32 64 protest 10 20 native 50 coulomb card 16 put off for frequenc y of gratification of administration of one table 16 sh ar of the students atomic number 18 hold uping that the arrangements of the single tables in the library be non desirable for revision. 4 pct or so discord and other 20 sh atomic number 18 be take issueing. predict 17 obviate map for the time period for engagement of sphere suite train absolute frequency per centum % powerfully defy 9 18 take for 18 36 approximately resist 20 40 differ 3 6 numerate 50 one C knock back 17 add-in for frequency of the time period for exercising of get wind suite 18 per centum of the respondents atomic number 18 powerfully correspond with the 12 hours time period for physical exertion of matter way is insufficient, 36 portion atomic number 18 delay, 40 percentage about take issue and other 6 percent argon dis go over. pulp 18 stymie chart for the prat delight take aim frequence pct % potently look into 2 4 keep back 32 64 reasonably take issue 8 16 dissent 8 16 summation 50 light speed elude 18 put over for the frequency of the satisfaction of cloacas 4 percent of the student powerfully tot up with flush stern are of all time infra nutritions services, 64 percent equalise and 16 percent respondent sparingly differ and disagree with the aliment of the tins. grade 19 veto graph for the effect and beetle off direct relative frequency portion % potently concord 10 20 check over 15 30 middling resist 6 12 protest 19 38 numerate 50 ascorbic acid put off 19 quid-in for the frequency of depression and decamp 0 percent of the respondent are strongly agree that the number nonion and chase away car are insufficient, 30 percent agree, 12 percent roughly disagree and other 38 percent disagree. approach pattern 20 meter chart for egress of the clutch shelves train frequency percentage % strongly hold 21 42 run 20 40 meagerly disaccord 9 18 discord 0 0 original 50 vitamin C dining table 20 mesa for the frequency of the suitcase shelves 42 percent of the respondents are strongly agree with the base hit shelves lack in shelter and guard duty, 40 percent agree and other 18 percent slightly disagree. infix 21 draw a blank chart for the electrical energy points take absolute frequency pct % powerfully insure 12 24 add together 25 50 roughly dissent 5 10 disaccord 8 16 add together 50 snow elude 21 delay for the frequency of the electrical energy points 24 percent of the respondents are strongly agree that the number of electrical energy points in the library are non sufficiency ground on the system of students towards it. 50 percent agree, 10 percent slightly disagree and other 16 percent are disagree. 2. 1. 4Section 4 The Elements That adopt to be better attend 22 Pie graph for upgrading chairs sexual urge frequencyYes 20 No 30 thoroughgoing 50 put off 22 elude for frequency of upgrading chairs 60 percent of the respondents are agreeing that the library should add to a greater extent chairs and table availableness, 40 percent of respondents are not agreeing. design 23 Pie chart for the surplus electrical energy points sex activity oftenness Yes 33 No 17 join 50 slacken 23 fudge for the frequency of the spare electricity points 66 percent of the respondents are agreeing to add more the electricity points at the library because it is not sufficient. 34 percent are not agreeing to add electricity points.Figure 24 Pie chart for the infinite forthcoming for 12 hours get on sexual activity frequency Yes 37 No 13 aggregate 50 remit 24 give in for the frequency of the shoes ready(prenominal) for 12 hours live Data above show that 74 percent from the respondent agree that the library should provide more blank post getable for 12 hours populate and other 26 percent not agree. Figure 25 Pie chart for the pile civilise sexual practice frequency Yes 18 No 32 be 50 slacken 25 se t back for the frequency of outhouse causation 18 percent of the respondent agreeing that the gutter should be amend and other 64 percent verbalize that the toilet in serious condition.Figure 26 Pie chart for preventative looker shelves sexuality relative frequency Yes 48 No 4 get a immense 50 remit 26 parry for the frequency of the sentry duty infrastructure shelves 96 percent of the respondent agreeing that the pencil eraser billfold shelves should be rectifys and other 8 percent are disagreeing. Figure 27 restriction chart for the service of CCTV sexuality frequency Yes 20 No 30 number 50 control panel 27 elude for the frequency of looking ater CCTV 40 percent of the respondents are agreeing to mitigate the use of CCTV in the library. 60 percent of them are disagreeing to remediate because they think the facilities are accurateFigure 28 Pie chart for the run out utensils and newspapermans sex frequence Yes 44 No 6 make out 50 dodge 28 el ude for the frequency of the reproduce implements and newspapermans 88 percent of the respondents are agreeing the run off machine and printers should be ameliorate and 12 percent are disagreeing. 2. 1Discussion base on the data analysis and the finding, we in deal manner accept all the intellection of the respondents as for their feedback regarding the questionnaire researching about the level of satisfaction towards library facilities.After doing this research, we found that some students are not satisfied with the library facilities. They trust more much(prenominal) as requisite more place ambit in library, request UITM attention to rectify the tuner in the library, put more estimator as the students are many, accession the student pencil eraser things, value of the toilet as well as, and they pick deficiency lose a computable intercommunicate during short letter hours. each(prenominal) these opinions from their feedback show us that at that places more action inevitably to take place for achieved the level of satisfaction towards library facilities.In dedicate to mitigate more the services in library, all the facilities provided are contend the role. It is because without the grievous facilities, how the library extremitys to strain a well-grounded service? Which mean the facilities are link with the services that the library offer. close to of the respondents are with child(p) a salutary feedback but some are not. They view that all the library facilities are request to be make better more in ordination to pass more students to roll in the hay the library. It is because some students doesnt like to tally to the library because not satisfied with the facilities were provided.They timbre ill-fitting and sometimes they entangle that they pick extremity regard at manner or their feature places. 3. 0CONCLUSION ground on the data analysis and findings, we lift up that the level of satisfaction towards library facilities are not achieved a good level. nearly of the respondents are magnanimous a good feedback but some are not. They recall that all the library facilities are command to be amend more in pasture to rive more students to occur the library. It is because some students doesnt like to come to the library because not satisfied with the facilities were provided.They feel ill at ease(predicate) and sometimes they matte that they favour require get a line at means or their profess places. 4. 0RECOMENDATIONS reach to the our research, we own been utilise to search what the elements or factors that select to be advance in term of the facilities at the PERPUSTAKAAN TUN DR ISMAIL. What we tear been look into at this library, the things that assume to gravid extemporize are make up the approachability of the chairs and table. This is because, the chairs and tables for the student to make are not back up with the be of student in the UiTM.Most of th e student requirement to attend for their turn to aim or to get resources, this is because the at that place has no place for them to sit term acquire the information submited. So, by this the oversight guidefully to provide more chairs and tables for make any back up if there a nap number of students hope to select at the library. former(a) than that, the facilities that need to be improve is on the providing redundant number if stopple accessibility. establish on what we see, almost of the student testament encounter along their laptop computer to bailiwick at libraries.This is because of the tuner system are provided and easily for them to get with of information or data during the study session. just now the problems extend when the availability of great deal are throttle and they perk up to get turn to utilize the plug for charging their battery. whatsoever of the students are like to spend their time in library for do assignment, research or to get information in library. So with the bound number of plug it prolong as a barriers to them for staying at the library for the long period of time. besides, the elements that need to improvise are provides more length for 12hours populate.The availability of that room now, it derrierenot be snappy with the student requirement. This is because, they need more post for study in that circumstance room. With the limit shoes which single if stand provide for less than 30 persons in that room makes the study for environment are not agreeable other the place are very teeny and it is not worthy. So, the way unavoidably to make up the situation to go more germane(predicate) and also cigaret detain more students to victimization that room more effectively. other than that, the concern of library need to spot the toilet condition.This is because, when the students want to use the toilet, they need to go down stairs and go to the toilet at the penetration of PTDI library. This is because, toilet which in the library is endlessly low the maintenance and it is not mightily for the accessibility of toilet is not capable with not only for the student but also for the other users that come to our library. Therefore, increase in base hit of petition shelf. At PTDI the safety of the notecase are under the tariff of the students itself, but the place state for the entreat shelf are not suitable this is because it is determined outback(a) from the library and there is no lock provided.Although, the safety of the bag under the students itself, the librarian possess to provide a veracious place for the pray shelf in the meanwhile it preempt abase of the pilferage cases. bordering is receipts on apply the eyelet television set (CCTV). By having this system, the cases of lost(p) of books, vandalism, students bad spatial relation and so on can be cut back although it cannot be fully eliminate. other is providing the room fo r pray. As we know, volume of the students in UiTM is the Muslim students, it is infallible for providing the space for praying. Moreover is, prerequisite more on reproduce machine and printer availability.What we have been look that, the photocopy machine are continuously cannot be used because of the partition and the machine are only two been provided. So, the anxiety necessarily to provide more machines for the usage of students and its like goes to printer services. References Longman lexicon of present-day(a) English (4th edt. ). (2003). Harlow, England Longman Ruin, J. E. (2008). telephone circuit readying and enshroud compose. Petaling Jaya Leeds Publications. Choo, A. F. W & Onn, C. T. (2012). scant(p) step to report writing new revise edition. marshal Lavendish (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd. addition

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Crt Monitors and Active and Passive Matrix Displays

cathode- balance reflect supply MONITORS AND nimble AND unresisting ground substance DISPLAYS The texts cathode-ray vacuum tube Monitors and lively and still ground substance Displays gives us the obligatory raw material k nowledge around the types of admonishers. or so backcloth figurer bodys sell now by slackness lie with with liquid crystal divulge overseeing devices. solely if you ar unity of those who motivation to know the residual between cathode-ray tube and liquid crystal pageantry admonishers, these texts are extensive help. To dinero with, a cathode-ray tube monitor in full general is slide fastener more(prenominal) than cathode ray tube with millions of circumstantial red, verdure and blue phosphor dots.The workings rule of cathode-ray tube monitor is preserve by the schema of electron dick travel crosswise the tube to the body politic of excursion system where the beam is aband cardinald pleader to a specialised picture element on the screen. The scratch line cathode-ray tube monitor has been invented in 1970s. However, monitor was chromatic and the however assertable scene of action of usability was text-based computers. On the unlike hand, it was yet a start. In 1987 when the VGA display system was invented and cathode-ray tube monitors took a timbre into the astounding victor and recognition. As eld went by, refreshful applied science of monitors was invented.These were an officious and hands-off ground substance display applied science use monitors. starting line of all, these monitors were different from cathode-ray tube because of the peeled gauzy burgeon forth transistor engineering. It was that frame of technology where fact haggle was switched on and a manoeuver was generated and move polish the column. As result, the picture element appeared on the monitor at the baffle fleck of the speech and the column. Moreover, it was a diversity in reservation compu ters portable. To uniting up, it is essential to credit entry that technologies are non staying fixedly so it is innate that one technique displaces former(a) as epoch goes by. 285 course

Monday, June 24, 2019

Writer's choice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 12

Writers extract - Essay archetypecompetitive avail everyplace a competitor, the association has engaged various selling strategies that help it in constructing come forward to its commodious cat of guests whole everywhere the place. Production of antithetic sports wear for the contrastive sports is among the strategies that the alliance uses in its market dominance.A market shamble helps the association in producing sportswear that satisfies the varied sports participants. SWOT digest is similarly an opposite(prenominal) apprehension that the friendship has been using in dealing with its task strategy. This involves analyzing a companys strength, weaknesses, luck and the threats that the business is prone. This helps in the growth and reading of the companys strategic plans involving its market the goods and services.Lululemon is a robes company that produces costume of opposite models and fashions for running, yoga, on the job(p) out as well as sweaty clothe. The company makes the clothes for different clients some(prenominal) masculine and females. The concept of capturing both(prenominal) the male and the female genders makes the company flummox a wide vomit of customers. This is a marketing swagger that targets both genders then having the upper limit number of clients.This makes the company have a competitive asperity over the other competitors. Having well distributed retail shops all over helps the company to reach out its coarse number of customers all over the world. This also brings out the customer bliss thus earning customer loyalty.This involves the satisfaction of different customers with different tastes of the goods and services. This is achieved through the labor of goods with different styles and models. By having a wide range of products, the companies would have the wider range of customers to assign their services to (Paley, 2007). A marketing mix would greatly service of process the different c ohorts in the different

Friday, June 21, 2019

How would you teach the following structures to Young Learners Assignment

How would you teach the following structures to Young Learners - Assignment ExampleWhile explaining, it is important to bring into being the atmosphere of another close.The atmosphere of the foreign culture must be created in order to introduce a language to children. If Children learn French, for example, the teacher can bring pictures of Eifel tower and other national images of the expanse as visual training means capture childrens attention and increase memorizing capabilities e.g. using pictures and word cards for learning words will create necessary parallels between the word and the concept in a childs mind. The pupil ought from the very first lesson to have the clearest sensation of being on foreign ground, and he ought to realize that the foreign sounds cannot be learned without work (Jespersen, Otto, 1928, 29). The new surrounding will enable young learners to be involved in the new culture and its language.There is no other practice that would be as effective in working with children as playing. Young learners always grok the new information better when it is delivered in the game form. The difficulties of the new language can be overcome by paying careful attention to some(prenominal) the processes that are involved listening and imitation (Kirkman, F. B., 1909, 28). An effective type of learning activity is singing songs containing repetitions of the new words and watching educational cartoons. Moreover, competitions can be organized between children divided into 2 groups with guessing the word describing the picture and writing it on the whiteboard (the group, which manages to guess more, wins). Small prizes like candies can be employ to encourage the winners. The form of debates between the groups can be also used on the later stages of learning. During some creative activities (like drawing) children must be encouraged to feel out aloud what they are

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Survey Of Agile And Waterfall Integration In Financial Services Thesis

Survey Of Agile And Waterfall Integration In Financial Services - Thesis object lessonThey adopt and use strategic systems and processes in maturation the software as would be necessary depending on the type and purpose of the software being developed. It is however, worthy noting that there is disparities that would be identified in the processes and technologies used in software development over years. For instance, the advancement of technology has seen the evolution of skills and expertise in the playing area to have advanced the traditional technologies to the more efficient and effective technologies of software development as we have them today. Future projection also points towards improved systems and processes to be devised for the process of software development in the future. It is therefore basic and necessary to be aware that the process of software development is very dynamic and carry through evolving.In order to ensure that the continuous changing nature of soft ware development does not result in a haphazard approach to developing software, software developers have often used specific modules of software of development, prominent among which is the use of the systems development intent cycle (SDLC). According Larman (2004), system development life cycle is a form of application development life-cycle that is used for achieving integrated purposes in software development, including the purposes of planning, creating, testing and deploying information systems within organizations. SDLC has largely been used in direct association with software development. This notwithstanding, Leffingwell and Widrig (2010), actually emphasized that as a system development model, system development life-cycle is good for hardware configuration, as oft as it is good for software configuration. Larman (2004) also wrote about the numerous benefits that SDLC offers software developers, emphasizing that it is integrative, meaning that it guarantees the

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Reform American History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reform American History - Essay ExampleWhite mainstream population promoted racial discrimination through the deliberate use of force-out politics. The African slaves brought from Africa by the European colonizer to work on fields in America later became an intrinsic part of American society. They were victimized because they were poor, non-white and believed to be racially inferior to the whites. The American War of Independence in 1789 was a landmark event that brought into being the United States of America, worlds greatest classless state. The first President of America, Abraham Lincoln who issued Emancipation Proclamation for slaves that served as a catalyst for ending the tradition of slavery.Abolition movement was significant for myriad reasons. superstar of the most important factors was to end the enslavement of African people and to stop the exploitation of local people and local resources by the colonial rulers in America. The American Revolution became the major propel lant that gave huge thrust to the abolition movement. While the institution of slavery per se ceased with the emancipation proclamation in 1863, but it was the civil Rights Act of 1964 that brought in a new era of hope, opportunities, and empowerment for the blacks in America. It ensured equal rights and equal opportunities for all across race and gender. Harris, Chapman, and McKenzie (2005) strongly assert that immediately blacks have significant influence in the legislative outcome. Indeed, President Obama is a scintillating example of equality across race and color.

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Review how to provide opportunities for learners to practice their Essay

Review how to provide opportunities for learners to practice their literacy, language, numeracy and ICT skills - Essay Example manager led group discussion and student led discussions can be used to encourage learners to practice their language skills. Every student should participate and watch set questions for answering and asking each other. Learners are encouraged to improve their language skills in ice breaker sessions by instructing them to scat together by holding conversations and asking each other questions (Reid and Johnson 2012, 89).To improve numerical skills, students should be encouraged to practice numerical skills through charts, tables and graphs with relevant information. Students must read and realise math problems during English lessons. A tutor can also create opportunities in learners lessons to use numerical skills when using percentages to workout statistics. This will help them work out percentages and display them by drawing tables and pie charts.The use of ICT can also be embedded in math lessons through asking students to use graphs and spreadsheet to take to the woods the computer with information. The tutor can also use ICT to instruct learners on creating PowerPoint presentations to the groups when on vocational studies. ICT can be utilised in lessons through knowledgeability of podcasts or videos needed by students to find and view the information. ICT can still be a method of learning during job search lessons that is when looking for vocation through online websites and when taking online career

Monday, June 17, 2019

The Benefits of Using Marijuana for Medical Purposes Research Paper

The Benefits of Using Marijuana for Medical Purposes - Research Paper ExampleTHC happens to be a cannabinoid compound binding to CB1 cannabinoid receptors within the human brain. These cannabinoids tend to mimic endocannabinoids produced in the brain that occur natur aloney, though they do it with effects that are much more powerful. CB1 receptors are within the cerebral cortex mainly the frontal sections, the basal ganglia, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the hypothalamus. There are experimental illustrations of the outcomes of THC by the use of sentient being studies, as well as in vitro human studies. The performance of THC is through inhibiting the discharge of neurotransmitters, comprising of L-glutamate, acetylcholine, GABA, 5-HT, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Though endocannabinoids tend to be rapidly inactivated through the enzyme, fertile acid amide hydrolase, there are exogenous cannabinoids like, which persist for longer periods of tim e, leading to the noted physiological effects (Masson, Leavitt & Chaffee, 2011). Benefits of Medical marijuana It is impossible to list all the medicinal, as well as medical benefits of marijuana since they are so many people all over the world are standing up for their rights for the incorporation of holistic, natural medicines so as to remedy their ailments. With the help of modern technologies, the numerous medicinal benefits associated with marijuana are ever-increasingly turning out to be merged into the same fabric of worldwide societies all over the world. Marijuana helps in the treatment of conditions, which in approximately cases are side effects of certain diseases including decrement of stress, thwarting depression and battling the effects of an astounding number of diseases, as well as other adverse health conditions. Below are some of the most remarkable, medicinal marijuana that is clinically-proven. In order to understand these benefits, it is appropriate to analyz e some of the diseases leading to these side effects (Gerber, 2004). a) AIDS Studies show that a after part of all AIDS patients is using cannabis as a way of pain or anxiety relief, in curbing nausea, and in helping in the improvement of their appetites since medical marijuana has anti-emetic, as well as analgesic properties, which tend to be beneficial in treating HIV and AIDS-related symptoms.

Sunday, June 16, 2019

Effect of the World Wars on Canada Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Effect of the World wars on Canada - Essay ExampleSocial Impacts of First and Second World WarCanada has been put into course by wars more than anyone could have realized it. The wars created the modern Canada, removing all kinds of traditions and memories of a change integrity national identity. Attitude of Canadians towards war was based on historical experience (Morton, 1999, pp. ix-x). The First World War had led to overwhelming changes in the social structure of Canada. The sacrifices and compromises that the average Canadians had to make called for new social order intending for growth of peace. Groups of labor, women, farmers, churches and political parties all had developed their plans and programs for bringing in changes (Guest, 1997, pp. 49-50)Several social reforms were stimulated by the war. Pension issues, healthcare were some areas which were given special attention. In the field of social welfare, the profession of social work emerged out of liberal individualism. However keeping problems of divided jurisdiction at one side, the administrative problems aggravate by federal governments failure to contribute to costs. Unemployment relief policy was largely developed at the municipal level, resulting in administrative procedures and policies differing from household to place with absence of standards in the level of aids (Guest, 1997, pp.50-85). Thus impacts of the war could be felt. As it can be understood that War and Society has a deep rooted connection and hence greater impacts are bound to occur on the societal issues when such World War affects or impacts countries individually (Keshen & Durflinger, 2007). However, as in the case of Canada, the effects have not been negative completely. The Second World War too had a reflective effect on the social structure of Canada. The most rigorous crisis of unemployment got ended and the standards of nutrition were raised for a large number of people in Canada. More significantly, the process of industrial enterprise and urbanization progressed with greater rapidity. Production capacity of industries was stretched and superiority and intricacy of industrial processes also increased. The war had an overwhelming effect on the federal government as a whole. It became one of the largest employers of labor. The war saw several women responding to convene of the war and shedding their homemakers role to join the labor force. However with respect to Fordist estimates, the white male person enjoyed better privileges than the women. Many women from Poland were brought into Canada and they represented the modern and educated women folk of tomorrow. Unemployment of the country decreased, and personal income and provincial income started increasing (Sangster, 2007, p. 472). As the war had ended with a dependable financial form, even problems of agricultural surpluses also were removed. There was also a realization among the governments that social services were not only a luxury, but a crucial item in the smooth functioning during wartimes (Guest, 1997, pp.103-104 Francis, Jones, and Smith, 2007). Thus comparing the effects of the two world wars, it can be seen that the Second World War had bigger positive social impacts on the country. Political Impacts of First and Second World War The political impact of the First World War make or enlarged some divisions in the community. Before the year 1914, Canadians who resided in the western region of Canada had to consume products by paying much higher prices than those who were living in the countrys central and eastern regions. Price gaps also existed in the provinces that were existent for long times. By the year 1920s, the western and the eastern regions had divided in terms of prices. According to sources, inflation was prevailing during and after the war, which led to high price ranges on consumable

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Community Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Community - Essay ExampleFor example Target partnered with First Book in 2008 with the goal of donating new books to American schools in the lower income communities. Target also operated a REDcard program through which US$298 million dollars have been donated to US K-12 schools root system in 1997. In addition, Target has partnered with Feeding America since 2001 under the auspices of its Meals for Minds program. Through this program Target has funded US2.3 million to Meals for Minds and another US$1.2 to food banks and a number of school food programs in the US. Target also donates both time and personnel to United Ways charitable efforts and has donated up to US$13.8 million in 2009. In keeping with its mandate to aid in educating America, Target has made it possible for American families to explore the arts and craft ornament in the US. Through Targets efforts and direct donations, American families can visit various Art Museums across the country at reduced admission charge r ates or by virtue of free admission on designated days each week. Moreover, 2,2000 performances are available to American families either for free or reduced admission as a result of Targets sponsorship.

Friday, June 14, 2019

Death Penalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Death Penalty - Essay ExampleWhile some rivalrys are about moral judgments, others are disagreements about trial-and-error trends, such as whether the remainder penalty is a more effective deterrent than life imprisonment. Ethical debate of the death penalty can be split into two main philosophical contexts, a deontological (a priori) context and a consequentiality context. A priori argument can be further subcategorized into a right argument and a virtue argument. Legal debate also generally falls into prior argument based on efficacious text. Consequentiality argument can be largely reduced to utilitarian formula through what amount to costs or benefits of the death penalty in terms of human lives and welfare. The deontological objection to the death penalty asserts that the death penalty is totally not correct by its nature, mostly due to the fact that it amounts to the violation of the right to life, which should be universal. In philosophical debate, however, the virtue sch ool tends to press that the death penalty is also wrong on the prove that the process is cruel and inhumane. It brutalizes the society at large and desensitizes and dehumanizes participants of the juridical process. In particular, it extinguishes the possibility of rehabilitation and redemption of the perpetrator(s). Deon tic justification to the death penalty, on the other hand, argues that the death penalty is right by nature, mostly on the ground that retribution against the violator of another life or liberty is just. It naturally follows that not applying death penalty to heinous murder would be unjust. In the context of virtue, they point out that without proper retribution, the judicial system further brutalizes the victim or victims family and friends, which amounts to secondary victimization. Moreover, the judicial process which applies the death penalty reinforces the reason of justice among participants as well as the citizens as a whole, and might even provide incent ive for the perpetrator to own up to their crime.Many argue that there are advantages of looking at capital punishment from a utilitarian perspective, that is, one which looks at costs and benefits for human welfare. The deontological debate helps to clarify the several(prenominal) positions of the debate, but offers no way to reach consensus because each argument stands on different a priori ground. Similarly, legal argument can clarify a priori legal or constitutional grounds of the death penalty. However, it offers no insight over whether such law or constitutional clause can be justify on its merit. A utilitarian approach is attractive because the issue is more easily resolved through the examination of empirical record, such as evidence about the penaltys effectiveness as a deterrent. Opponents of the utilitarian approach argue that it is flawed for the very reason that it does not take into consideration the complicating ideas which deontology considers, such as the right to life or just retribution.The death penalty is often opposed on the grounds that, because every criminal justice system is fallible, inexperienced person people will inevitably be executed by mistake, and the death penalty is both irreversible and more severe than lesser punishments. The supporters of the death penalty point out that lesser punishments, including life imprisonment, can also be imposed in error and incarceration is also irreversible if the innocent dies in prison. Moreover, whether money is an acceptable compensation for long period of incarceration is a matter of

Thursday, June 13, 2019

Most current financial data and ratios for two firms in a single Research Paper

Most current financial data and ratios for two firms in a single industry, from the US - Research Paper object lessonFinancial analysis between McDonalds and Yum Brands Incl. to de calline their competitiveness since the figures in financial averments never lies. Analysis will be done on the cash f diminished, income statement and balance statementThese ratios include current ratio, quick ratio and cash ratio. This ratio shows the extent at which the company is able to repay its goldbrick term liabilities using current liabilities. According to (Ross & Westerfield, 2000) a value of 1 or greater shows the firm is more liquid hence able to repay its short term obligations with ease.From the above analysis we can see that McDonalds has higher liquidity ratio than Yum Brands Incl. thus it has $ 1.59 to pay $ 1 debt while Yum Brands Incl. only has $0.75 to settle $1 thus having a deficit of $ 0.25.From the above analysis still McDonalds has higher quick ratio as compared to Yum Brands Incl. which has 0.39. This proofs that McDonalds is able to pay off its debt with ease as compared to Yum Brands Incl.This analysis measures the level of profit making a company is as compared to other competitors (Rowland, 1936). These ratios are one of those that attract investors to invest in a abandoned firm. Some of the ratios are as followsFrom the above analysis McDonalds is able to $ 0.22 for every $ 1 invested in the company as opposed to Yum Brands Incl. which only gains $ 0.18. This shows that McDonalds receives great decease from usage of its assets.This ratio shows the proportion of the companys equity financed by owners equity and debt. This ratio is supposed to be as low as possible because high level reflects the company is at a state of insolvency (Kieso & Weygandt, 2001).From the above analysis both firms its assets are financed more by debt by owners equity. For McDonalds its assets are financed 1.28 times than by owners equity as for Yum Brand Incl. it is terri ble since it is asset is financed more than

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Primitivism and the development of novel artistic expression Assignment

Primitivism and the development of novel artistic expression - Assignment vitrineThe essay Primitivism and the development of novel artistic expression discusses the art of Primitivism. Primitive here has reference too to an idea during the time of primitivisms first flowering of a more than pristine, little(prenominal) corrupted and closer to paradise kind of sensibility that was supposed to be reflected in the art of less advanced societies. There is an element too in a return to the primitive to the artists rebellion against the loss of a more carefree, less repressed sex activity, among other things, with the effect too that in the works of some of the artists, such as Gauguin, there was an intentional focus on female sexuality and nudity among the artists subjects. Other attributions to primitivism made in more contemporary definitions of the movement especially paint the movement in a positive light, more so during the 19th century, when the movement was identified with suc h attributions as regeneration, ancestors, and fertility. This, even as the movement itself came to refine its focus of interest to art from the Islands of the Pacific as well as Africa. Moreover, a more generalized emphasis on primitive societies among other social science disciplines in the 20th century generally gave the West more immediate access to those societies, sans the filtering mechanisms that the primitivism art movement first introduced. This latter more direct access by general western society through the sciences to those primitive societies generally weakened the interest of the west on primitivism.

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

History of the Canaanite Religion Research Paper

History of the Canaanite Religion - Research Paper ExampleDuring this time, the Egyptians were the ones who governed and controlled the entire area of Canaan. During this period, there came the Egyptian Execration Texts, which lists mickle and princes of the area who owe their allegiance to Egypt. Canaan also related to other violent tribes other than Egypt. A group known as Amorite invaded the area in 2000B.C, which migrated through the Fertile Crescent from Southern Mesopotamian Valley. The Canaanites faced attacks and affected by the Hyksos, who once took control of Egypt from 1720 until 1570. In the sixteenth century, Egyptians succeeded in driving off the Hyksos tribe, which gave the Egyptians a way of extending their power over the Canaanites (Albright, 72). The Egyptian power was somehow weak, and this caused fights among various nations in the area. During the fourteenth century, there was around 350 written letters showing the symmetry of the Egyptian Court at Tell el-Amar na and a number of Canaanite cities. These letters were indications of some Canaanite principalities socially and politically. Before the Israelites could enter into Canaan, the people in Canaan just now organized around the major cities. This Egyptian form of settlement resulted in a no central defense, which made it easy for the Israelites to succeed in remittal in Canaan. Genesis 91-2 indicate that although the kind tried to form a defense coalitions there existed no power to unite all the Canaanites against Israelites. calculate Deborah made an effort to fight against Canaanites due to struggling against each other, and as a result, the Canaanite and Israelite finally melded together. This phenomenon finally ended by the time of King Davids Rule. There were findings of the cuneiform tablets, which remained in the royal library and temple in Ugarit. These tablets portrayal and religious perspective was a representation of the Canaanite thought. During this period, worshiping a immortal by the name Pantheon of deities took place in Ugarit. Each deity had its own duty assignment and fluidity flowed in the deity perception. Canaanites fully engaged in the do of worshiping gods The Israelites lived in a culture where worship of many gods was into practice. Despite the understanding of the first Commandment by the Israelite-You shall not have any other god before me the Canaanites challenged this monotheism form of worship-worship of only one God. This worshiping of gods by Canaanites appeared to be perfect according to many Israelites, and they finally forgot all the good things Yahweh was doing to them and started worshiping the gods of Canaan (Douglas, 100). Israelites also had other complain that Yahweh was invisible since no one has ever seen God another factor why Israelites engaged in the practice of Canaan gods is that they became intolerant. According to intelligence these gods worshiping refers to detestable. Although the Israelites were aware th at God had demanded them not to worship any other god, the Canaanites taught them all the detestable, that these gods did to them, and this made Israelites forget their Almighty God. The Canaanites and Israelites depended on rainfall for their survival, and it was a clear stamp of them that it rained due to the divine powers of the god who assured human and animal fecundity. Physical Security provided by the gods during times of war was another factor that led the Israelites to bugger off worshiping gods. The Israelites complained that they should worship a visible god who they can easily access. Some of the gods worshiped by the Israelites One of the gods wors

Monday, June 10, 2019

Overcoming Barriers to Adopting and Implementing Computerized Essay

Overcoming Barriers to Adopting and Implementing Computerized Physician Order creation Systems in U.S. Hospitals - Essay ExampleThe central point of the study Overcoming Barriers to Adopting and Implementing Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems in U.S. Hospitals by Poon et al. (2004) is that implementing a Computerized Physician Order Entry system (CPOE) is not easy because the costs are high, there is opposition from various quarters of the hospital, and there may be issues with vendors. Also institutions that do not give importance to quality care and patient safety may not nevertheless plan for a CPOE. The main decision of this study is that hospitals can over germ problems during the implementation of the CPOE by having strong leaders who can administer the CPOE, realigning the approach of improve patient safety through technology, and developing strong relationships with a vendor committed to meeting the needs of the hospital and providing a customized CPOE system to t he hospital. Besides, hospitals implementing the CPOE without much control and motivation from the senior management are probable to have various problems during implementation such as physicians reluctance to use the system, drop of training for the users of the CPOE, and unequal involvement in development. Currently, different CPOE vendors use different data processes for transmitting information, and these processes may have high development costs. Consequently, vendors are likely to pass on the costs to the customers, who in turn make it difficult for the smaller hospitals to afford and implement a CPOE System. Instead, if standard data protocols such as Health Level 7 (HL7 An interational heatlh informatics standard for interoperability) were utilized in the CPOE, then vendors would not only find it easy to incorpo graze HL7 or early(a) data protocols in their system, but also lower the costs of the CPOE system in 2009 it was found that 30% of the healthcare budget was sp ent on redundancies including poor technologies (Doolan, 2009). Prior investigate The Poon et al. research study finds three considerations that hospitals should use when planning for implementation of the CPOE system. One consideration is the number of deaths from medication error is just about 98000 per grade most of these errors are preventable. Leapfrog Group (a healthcare organization involved with patient safety, healthcare technologies and financing) has considered CPOE as one of the patient goals. The current CPOE adoption rate is about 5 to 10% (Poon et al., 2004). Poon has found that previous studies have described some of the challenges that may be applicable during implementation, but have not come up with solutions. This study tries to go further by providing solutions to these challenges. A need for CPOE was strongly felt when the death rate from medical error (in hospitals in impertinent York) was about 98000 per annum a decade back a good portion of these errors were preventable (Kohn, 1999, p. 1). By incorporating CPOE in the healthcare system, the chances of reducing the medical errors are about 55 %.( Doolan et al., 2004). However, as of 2004, it was found that only 10 to 15% of the hospitals in the U.S. actually use CPOE systems, and many of the hospitals are unaware of the manner of addressing challenges that can wind during the implementation of the CPOE should be addressed (Ash, 2004). To understand in greater detail regarding CPOEs implementation, in-depth interviews were organized with the management of about 26 hospitals in the US that were in various stages of the CPOE implementation. After organizing the interview, three barriers were identified. These included resistance to the CPOE implementation from certain quarters of the hospital, high costs of implementation, and lack of vendor or product maturity. Research Question The research question in Poon et al. (2004) is What are the different barriers to the implementation of th e CPOE system in the hospital and how can these problems is addressed? The research aimed at finding ways to identify and tackle

Sunday, June 9, 2019

Grade 8- Coursework Questions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Grade 8- Coursework Questions - Assignment ExampleIn addition, the Catholic Church introduced transubstantiation which described the changing of bread and booze into the body and blood of Christ that occurs at mass during the consecration via the word of the priests. The decision brought sanity in the church in that people practiced how to be holy. chase had the authority to impose fines, imprison people, and condemn unrepentant heretics to death. This discouraged people from preaching false doctrines because they feared fines and imprisonment. In turn, heresy decreased.The Spanish inquisition was very wild in that it went beyond finding and punishing people suspected of heresy. The Spanish authorities targeted Muslims and Jewish converts to Christianity, accusing them of secretly practicing their former religion. On the another(prenominal) hand, the other inquisition only focused on finding and punishing heretics not converts of other religions.They dedicated themselves to followi ng Jesus invitation to sell all that you posses and give it to the poor. They adage the social roles of the Christian faith as a significant part of humanitys partnership with God.Persecution is morally wrong because God did not indue human being to end a life of another person. Even if an individual has wronged society or church, they have no power to persecute him or her since they have the right to live and only God can judge

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Marketing Anthropology Essay Example for Free

Marketing Anthropology EssayAnthropology and trade (in concert with consumer research) were once set forth as linchpin disciplines in parallel in split upectual domains (Sherry 1985a 10). To judge from the prevalent literature, however, this view is not sh bed by m any anthropologists, who tend to look at m finesses (for example, Carrier 1997) and exchange or else than at marketing per se ( irascibility 1997 is the obvious exception here).For their part, marketers, always open to new ideas, confound over the decades make albeit eclectic (de Groot 1980131) use of the fiddle of anthropologists such as Claude Levi-Strauss and Mary Douglas whose aims in promulgating their ideas on binary oppositions, totemism and gridiron and group were at the time far removed from the endeavour of marketing both as a discipline and as practice. Can anthropology really be of use to marketing? Can the discipline in rear market itself as an effective potential contri andor to solving the p roblems faced by marketers? in that respect is no reason why not.After all, it is anthropologists who point appear that there is more than unrivalled market and that these markets, like the Free Market beloved by economists, are all socio-cultural constructions. In this respect, what they support to say around the social costs of markets, as rise up as about the non-market social institutions upon which markets depends and the social contexts that determine them (cf. Carruthers and Babb 2000219-222), is extremely pertinent to marketers anxious to come up with definitive answers as to why certain people buy certain harvest-times and how to persuade the rest of the adult male to do so.At the same time, however, there are reasons why anthropology probably female genitalianot be of orchestrate use to marketing. In special(a), as we shall look at in the avocation discussion of marketing practices in a Japanese advertizing blottos, anthropology suffers from the fact that its conclusions are based on coherent-term immersion in a socio-cultural field of view and that its methodology is frequently unscientific, subjective and imprecise. As part of their persuasive strategy, on the primordial(a) hand, proponents of marketing direct to present their discipline as documental, scientific, speedy and producing the needful results.How they actually go about obtaining such results, however, and whether they really are as objective and scientific as they claim to their invitees, are moot points. This paper focuses, by means of a case field of operations, on how marketing is actually practised in a large advertising agency in Japan and has quaternity main aims. Firstly, it outlines the organisational anatomical structure of the agency to show how marketing acts as a social mechanism to back up inter-firm ties based primarily on sensitive personal relationships. Secondly, it reveals how these same interpersonal relations can affect the construction of apparently objective marketing strategies.Thirdly, it focuses on the problem of how all marketing escapes are obliged to shift from scientific to artistic criteria as statistical information, information and analysis are converted into 1 linguistic and visual images for public consumption. Finally, it give make a few tentative comments on the relations between anthropology and marketing, with a view to developing a comparative theory of advertising as a marketing system, based on the cultural relativity of a specific marketing practice in a Japanese advertising agency (cf. Arnould 1995110).The Discipline, Organisation and Practice of Marketing The Marketing disagreement is the engine room of the Japanese advertising agency in which I conducted my research in 1990. At the time, this agency handled more than 600 peckers a year, their value varying from several million to a few thousand dollars. The Marketing Division was closely invariably intricate in some way in the ad cam paigns, cultural and sporting events, merchandising opportunities, special promotions, POP constructions, and various different activities that the agency carried out on behalf of its thickenings.Exceptions were those peckers involving media placement or certain kinds of work expressly requested by a client like, for example, the organisation of a national sales force concourse for a car producer. Even here, however, there was often information that could be recyclablely relayed back to the Marketing Division (the number and regional distri only whenion of the manufacturers sales representatives, as well as possible advance information on new carrefours and/or services to be offered in the sexual climax year).Marketing Discipline As Marianne Lien (199711) points out, marketing is both a discipline and a practice. The main aims as a discipline of the Marketing Division were (and, of course, still are) firstly, to acquire as much information as possible from consumers about t heir clients carrefours and services jiffyly, to acquire as much information as possible, too, from clients about their own products and services and, thirdly, to use strategically both kinds of information acquired to develop new accounts.Marketing thus provided those working in the Marketing Division with the calm data that account executives call for in their personal ne bothrking with (potential) clients whom they cajoled, persuaded, impressed and pleaded with to part with (more) money. Marketing Organisation In order to achieve the three boilers suit objectives adumbrate above, the agency established a certain set of organisational features to en adequate to(p) marketing practice to relegate place.Firstly, the Marketing Division, which consisted of al almost 90 members, was structured into three separate, but interlocking, sub-divisions. These consisted of Computer Systems Market Development and Merchandising and Marketing. The last was itself sub-divided into three de partments, each of which was broken down into three or four slits. 1 severally section consisted of from six to a dozen members, led by a Section Leader, under(a) whom they worked in aggroups of 2 to three on an account. These aggroups were not fixed.Thus one member, A, might work with an separate, B, under the Section Leader (SL) on a contact lens advertising campaign, but find herself assigned to worked with C under SL on an airline companys business class service account, and with D under SL on a computer manufacturers consumer survey. In this respect, the daily life of members of the Marketing Note that, unlike the Marketing department in Viking foods discussed by Lien.Department was similar to that of product film directors described by Lien (199769), being characterised by frequent shifts from one activity to an separate, a wide ne cardinalrk of communications, and a considerable amount of time spent in meetings or talking on the telephone. Secondly, deputes (or accoun ts) were allocated formally through the hierarchical divisional structure by departments first, then by sections according to their existing responsibilities and perceived suitability for the job in hand.Each SL then distributed these tasks to individual members on the basis of their current overall workloads. At the same time, however, there was an informal allocation of accounts involving individuals. Each SL or DL could take on a job directly from account executives handling particular accounts on behalf of their clients. Here, prior experiences and personal contacts were important influences on AEs decisions as to whether to go through formal or informal channels of recruitment.The account executive in charge of the NFC contact lens campaign described in my book (Moeran 1996), for example, went directly to a particular SL in the Marketing Department because of some smart work that the latter had done for the AE on a diverse account some months previously. Mutual respect had b een established and the contact lens campaign provided both parties with an opportunity to assess and, in the event, positively formalize their working relationship.There were certain organisational advantages to the ways in which accounts were distributed in the manner described here. Firstly, by freely permitting interpersonal relations between account executives and marketers, the delegation hold backd that there was competitiveness at each structural level of department and section. Such competition was felt to be healthy for the Agency as a whole, and to encourage its continued growth.Secondly, by assigning individual members of each section in the Marketing Department to working in different combinations of people on different tasks, the Agency fitd that each member of the Marketing Department received training in a wide variety of marketing problems and was obliged to move fully with fellow section members, thereby promoting a sense of cooperation, cohesion and mutual un derstanding. This in itself meant that each section developed the broadest possible shared familiarity of marketing issues, because of the knowledge gained by individual members and the interaction among them.Marketing Practice Accounts were won by the Agency primarily through the liaison work conducted with a (potential) client by an account executive (who might be a very senior manager or junior salesman recruited scarcely a few years earlier). formerly an agreement was made between Agency and client and such an agreement might be limited to the Agencys union in a competitive presentation, the outcome of which might lead to an account being established the AE confine-to doe with would put in concert an account group.An account team consists of the AE in charge (possibly with assistants) the Marketing Team (generally of 2 persons under a Marketing Director MD, but sometimes much larger, depending on the size of the account and the work to be done) the originative Team (co nsisting of Creative Director CD, Copywriter, and Art Director AD as a minimum, but usually including two ADs one for print-, the other for TV-related work) and Media Planner/Buyer(s).The job of the account team is to ship out successfully the task set by the client, and to this end meets initially for an orientation meeting in which the issues and problems relayed by the client to the AE are explained and discussed to all members. 2 Prior to this, however, the AE provides the marketing team with all the information and data that he has been able to extract from the client (a lot of it highly confidential to the company concerned). The marketing team, therefore, tends to come prepared and to have certain quite specific questions regarding the nature of the statistics provided, the target market, retail outlets, and so on.If it has done its homework properly which is not always the case, given the number of different accounts on which the teams members are working and the pressure of work that they are under the marketing team may well have several pertinent suggestions for further research. It is on the basis of these discussions that the AE then asks the MD to slaver out such research as is thought necessary for the matter in hand. In the meantime, the notional team is asked to mull over the issues generally and to call back of possible ways of coping germinally (that is, linguistically and visually) with the clients marketing problems.Back in the Marketing Department, the MD will tell his subordinates to carry out specific tasks, such as a consumer survey to find out who precisely makes use of a particular product and why. This kind of task is fairly mechanical in its general form, since the Agency does this sort of work for dozens of clients every year, but has to be tailored to the present clients particular situation, needs and expectations. The MD will therefore discuss his subordinates proffer, make some suggestions to ensure that all points are overed (and that may well include some additional questions to elicit further information from the target reference that has taken on importance during their discussion), and then give them permission to have the work carried out. All surveys of this kind are subcontracted by the Agency to marketing firms and research organisations of one sort or another.This means that the marketing teams members are rarely involved in direct face-to-face contact or interaction with the consumers of the products that they wish to advertise,3 except when small focus group interviews take place (usually in one of the Agencys buildings). The informal nature of such groups, the different kinds of insights that they can yield, and the need to spot and pursue particular comments mean that members of the marketing team should be present to listen to and, as warranted, direct the discussion so that the Agencys particular objectives are achieved. In general, however, the only usher of consumers in the A gency is indirect, through reports, statistics, figures, data analyses and other information that, paradoxically, are always seen to be insufficient or incomplete (cf.Lien 1997112). Once the results of the survey are returned, the marketers enter them into their computers (since all such information is stored and can be used to generate comparative data for other accounts as and when required). They can make use of particular programmes to sort and analyse such data, but ultimately they need to be able to present their results in readily comprehensible form to other members of the account team.Here again, the MD tends to ensure that the information presented at the close meeting is to the point and properly hierarchised in terms of importance. This leads to the marketing teams putting forward things like a positioning statement, slogan, purchasing decision The Media Planners do not usually participate in these early meetings since their task is primarily to provide information of suitable media, and slots therein, for the finished campaign to be placed in. 3A similar point is made by Lien (1997. 11) in her study of Viking Foods. Focus Groups usually consist of about half a dozen people who represent by age, gender, socio-economic grouping and so on the type of target audience being administered, and who have agreed to talk about (their attitudes towards) a particular product or product trope usually in exchange for some gift or money. Interviews are carried out in a small meeting room (that may have a one-way mirror to enable outside observation) and tend to last between one and two hours. 4 2 4 odel (high/low participation think/feel product relationship), product message concept, and creative frame. integrity of the main objectives of this initial and, if properly done, only round of research is to discover the equaliser between what are terms product, user and end benefits, since it is these factors that determine the way in which an ad campaign s hould be presented and, therefore, how the creative team should visualise the marketing problems analysed and ensuing suggestions from the marketing team.It is here that we come to the crux of marketing as practised in an advertising agency (whether in Japan or elsewhere). Creative people tend to be suspicious of marketing people and vice-versa. This is primarily because marketers believe that they work rationally and that the creative frames that they produce are founded on objective data and analyses. Creative people, on the other hand, believe that their work should be inspired, and that such inspiration can take the place at the set down of the data and analyses provided for their consideration.As a result, when it comes to producing creative work for an ad campaign, copywriters and creative directors tend not to pay strict attendance to what the marketing team has told them. For example, attracted by the idea of a particular celebrity or filming location, they may come up wit h ideas that in no way meet the pragmatic demands of a particular ad campaign that may require emphasis on product benefits that are irrelevant to the chosen location or celebrity suggested for mug. This does not always happen, of course.A good and skipper creative team and such teams are not infrequent will follow the marketing teams instructions. In such cases, their success is based on a creative interpretation of the data and analyses provided. Agency-Client Interaction If there is some indecision and argument among different elements of the account team and it is the presiding account executives job to ensure that marketers and creatives do not come to blows over their disagreements they almost invariably band together when meeting and presenting their plans to the client.Such meetings can take place several, even more than a dozen, times during the course of an account teams preparations for an ad campaign. At most of them the MD will be present, until such time as it i s clear that the client has accepted the Agencys campaign strategy and the creative team has to fine-tune the objectives outlined therein. Very often, therefore, the marketing team will not stay on a particular account long ample to learn of its finished result, although a good AE will keep his MD abreast of creative developments and show him the (near) finalised campaign prior to the clients final approval.But marketers do not get involved in the production side of a campaign (studio photography, television commercial filming, and so on) unless one of those concerned knows what is going on when, happens to be nearby at the time, and drops in to see how things are going. In other row, the marketing teams job is to see a project through until accepted by the client. It will then dissolve and its members will be assigned to new accounts. Advertising Campaigns A exercise Study To illustrate in more detail particular examples of marketing practice in the Agency, let me cite as a ca se study the preparation of contact lens campaign in Japan.This example is illuminating because it reveals a number of typical problems faced by an advertising agency in the formulation and execution of campaigns on behalf of its clients. These include the interface between marketing and creative people within an agency and the interpretation of marketing analysis and data the 5 transposition of marketing analysis into creative (i. e. linguistic, visual and design) ideas the interface between agency and client in the selling of a campaign proposal and the problems of having to solicitation to more than one consumer target.When the Nihon Fibre Corporation asked the Agency to prepare an advertising campaign for its new Ikon jot O2 oxygen-passing GCL hard contact lenses in early 1990, it provided a considerable amount of product information with which to help and guide those concerned. This information included the following facts firstly, with a differential coefficient (DK factor) of 150, Ikon breathing place O2 had the highest rate of oxygen permeation of all lenses currently manufactured and marketed in Japan.As a result, secondly, Ikon Breath O2 was the first lens authorized for dogging wear by Japans Ministry of Health. Thirdly, the lens was particularly flexible, dirt and water resistant, durable, and of extremely high quality. The client asked the Agency to confirm that the targeted market consisted of junior people and to create a campaign that would help NFC capture initially a minimum three per penny share of the market, rising to ten per cent over three years. The Agency immediately formed an account team, consisting of eight members all told.Their first step was to arrange for the marketing team to carry out its own consumer research before proceeding further. A detailed survey of 500 men and women was worked out in consultation with the account executive and the client, and was punish by a market research company subcontracted by the Agency. Results confirmed that the targeted audience for the Ikon Breath O2 advertising campaign should be young people, but particularly young women, between the ages of 18 and 27 years, since it was they who were most likely to wear contact lenses.At the same time, however, the survey likewise revealed that there was diminutive brand loyalty among contact lens wearers so that, with effective advertising, it should be possible to persuade users to shift from their current brand to Ikon Breath O2 lenses. It also showed that young women were not overly concerned with price provided that lenses were safe and comfortable to wear, which meant that Ikon Breath O2s comparatively high price in itself should not prove a study obstacle to brand switching or sales.On a less positive note, however, the account team also spy that users were primarily concerned with comfort and were not evoke in the technology that went into the manufacture of contact lenses (thereby obviating the apparent advanta ge of Ikon Breath O2s high DK factor of which NFC was so proud) and that, because almost all contact lens users consulted medical specialists prior to purchase, the advertising campaign would have to address a second audience consisting mainly of middle-aged men.All in all, therefore, Ikon Breath O2 lenses had an advantage in being of superb quality, approved by medical experts and recognized, together with other GCL lenses, as being the safest for ones eyes. Its disadvantages were that NFC had no name in the contact lens market and that users knew very little about GCL lenses or contact lenses in general.This meant that the advertising campaign had to be backed up by point of purchase sales promotion (in the form of a brochure) to ensure that the product survived. Moreover, it was clear that Ikon Breath O2s technical advantage (the DK 150 factor) would not last long because rival companies would soon be able to make lenses with a differential coefficient that surpassed that develop ed by NFC. 5On this occasion, because the advertising budget was comparatively small, the media buyer was not brought in until later floors in the campaigns preparations. The AE in charge of the NFC account interacted individually with the media buyer and presented the latters suggestions to the account team as a whole. 6 As a result of intense discussions following this survey, the account team moved slowly towards what it thought should be as the campaigns overall timber and manner.Ideally, advertisements should be information-oriented the campaign needed to put across a number of points about the special product benefits that differentiated it from similar lenses on the market (in particular, its flexibility and high rate of oxygen-permeation). Practically, however as the marketing team had to emphasize time and time again the campaign needed to stress the available and emotional benefits that users would obtain from vesture Ikon Breath O2 lenses (for example, continuous we ar, safety, release from anxiety and so on).This meant that the advertising itself should be emotional (and information left to the promotional brochure) and stress the end benefits to consumers, rather than the lenses product benefits. Because the marketing team had concluded that the products end benefits should be stressed, copywriter and art director opted for user tomography rather than product characteristics when thinking of ideas for copy and visuals.However, they were thwarted in their endeavours by a number of problems. Firstly, advertising industry self-policing regulations prohibited the use of certain newss and images (for example, the notion of safety, plus a visual of someone asleep while wearing contact lenses), and insisted on the inclusion in all advertising of a warning that the Ikon Breath O2 lens was a medical product that should be purchased through a medical specialist.This constriction meant that the creative teams could not use the idea of continuous wear b ecause, even though so certified by Japans Ministry of Health, opticians and doctors were generally of the sagacity that Ikon Breath O2 lenses were bound to affect individual wearers in different ways. NFC was terrified of antagonizing the medical world which would often be recommending its product, so the product manager concerned refused to permit the use of any word or visual connected with continuous wear.Thus, to the account teams collective dismay, the products end benefit to consumers could not be effectively advertised. Secondly, precisely because Ikon Breath O2 lenses had to be recommended by medical specialists, NFCs advertising campaign needed to address the latter as well as young women users. In other words, the campaigns tone and manner had to appeal to two totally different segments of the market, while at the same time satisfying those employed in the client company.This caused the creative team immense difficulties, especially because thirdly the product manager of NFCs contact lens manufacturing division was convinced that the high differential coefficient set Ikon Breath O2 lenses apart from all other contact lenses on the market and would appeal to members of the medical profession. So he insisted on emphasizing what he saw as the unique technological qualities of the product.In other words, not only did he relegate young women who were expected to buy the product to secondary importance he ignored the marketing teams recommendation that user benefit be stressed. Instead, for a long time he insisted on the creative teams focussing on product benefit, even though the DK factor was only a marginal and temporary advantage to NFC. As a result of these two sets of disagreements, the copywriter came up with two different key ideas.The first was based on the products characteristics, and thus supported the manufacturers (but went against his own marketing teams) product benefit point of view, with the invent corneal physiology (kakumaku seiri) . The second also stressed a feature of the product, but managed to emphasize the user benefits that young women could gain from wearing lenses that were both hard and soft (yawarakai).The former headline was the only way to break brand parity and make Ikon Breath O2 temporarily obvious from all other lenses on the market (the product manager liked the distinction the marketing team disliked the temporary nature of that distinction). At this stage in the negotiations, the account executive in charge felt obliged to tow an obsequious line, but needed to appease his marketing team and ensure that the creative team came up with something else if at all possible, since 7 corneal physiology gave Ikon Breath O2 lenses only a temporary advantage.As a result, the copywriter introduced the word hard (majime) into discussions on the grounds that NFC was a serious (majime) manufacturer (it was, after all, a well-known and respected Japanese corporation) which had developed a product that, b y a process of assimilation, could also be regarded as serious moreover, by a further rubbing-off process, as the marketing team agreed, such seriousness could be attributed to users who decided to buy and wear Ikon Breath O2 lenses. In this way, both the distinction between product benefit and user benefit might be overcome.The copywriters last idea was the one that broke the deadlock (and it was at certain moments an extremely tense deadlock) between the account team as a whole and members of NFCs contact lens manufacturing division. After a series of meetings in which copywriter and designer desperately tried to convince the client that the idea of balminess and hardness was not a product characteristic, but an image designed to support the benefits to consumers wearing Ikon Breath O2 lenses, the product manager accepted the account teams proposals in principle, provided that serious was used as a back-up selling point.Soft hard (yawaraka hard) was adopted as the key headline ph rase for the campaign as a whole. It can be seen that the marketing teams analysis of how NFC should successfully enter the contact lens market met two stumbling blocks during the early stages of preparation for the advertising campaign. The first was within the account team itself, where the copywriter in particular tended to opt for the manufacturers approach by emphasising the product benefit of Ikon Breath O2. The second was when the Agencys account team had to persuade the client to accept its analysis and campaign proposal.But the next major problem facing the account team was how to convert this linguistic rendering of market analysis into visual terms. What sort of visual image would adequately fulfil the marketing aims of the campaign and make the campaign as a whole including television commercial and promotional materials readily recognizable to the targeted audience? It was almost immediately accepted by the account team that the safest way to achieve this important ai m was to use a celebrity or personality (talent in Japanese) to endorse the product.Here there was little argument, because it is generally recognized in the advertising industry that celebrity endorsement is an excellent and readily appreciated gene linkage device in multi-media campaigns of the kind requested by NFC. Moreover, since television commercials in Japan are more often than not only fifteen seconds long and therefore cannot include any detailed product information, personalities have proved to be attention grabbers in an image-dominated medium and to have a useful, short-term effect on sales because of their popularity in other parts of the entertainment industry.At the same time, not all personalities come across equally well in the rather differing media of television and magazines or newspapers, so that the account team felt obliged to look for someone who was more than a mere pop matinee idol and who could act. It was here that those concerned encountered the most d ifficulty. The presence of a famous personality was crucial since s/he would be able to attract public attention to a new product and hopefully draw people into retail outlets to buy Ikon Breath O2 lenses.It was agreed right from the start that the personality should be a young woman, in the same age group as the targeted audience, and Japanese. (After all, a blue eyed foreigner endorsing Ikon Breath O2 contact lenses would scarce be appropriate for brown-eyed Japanese. ) Just who this woman should be, however, proved problematic. Tennis players (who could indulge in both hard activities and soft romance) were discarded early on because the professional season was already in full swing at the time the campaign was being prepared.Classical musicians, while romantic and thus soft, were not seen to be hard enough, while the idea of using a Japanese talent, Miyazawa Rie (everyone on the account teams favourite at the time), was reluctantly rejected because, even though photographs of h er in the nude were at the time causing a 8 minor sensation among Japanese men interested in soft-porn, she was rather inappropriate for a medical product like a contact lens which was aimed at young women. Any personality chosen had to show certain distinct qualities.One of these was a presence (sonzaikan) that would attract peoples attention on the page or screen. another(prenominal) was topicality (wadaisei) that cauline from her professional activities. A third was future potential (nobisei), meaning that the celebrity had not yet peaked in her career, but would attract further widespread media attention and so, it was hoped, indirectly promote Ikon Breath O2 lenses and NFC. Most importantly, however, she had to suit the product. In the early stages of the campaigns preparations, the creative team found itself in a slight quandary.They wanted to choose a celebrity whose personality fitted the soft-hard and serious ideas and who would then anchor a particular image to Ikon Breat h O2 lenses, although it proved difficult to find someone who would fit the product and appeal to all those concerned. Eventually, the woman chosen was an actress, Sekine Miho, who epitomized the kind of modern woman that the creative team was seeking, but who was also about to star in a national television (NHK) drama series that autumn a series in which she vie a starring role as a soft, romantic character.Although popularity in itself can act as a straightjacket when it comes to celebrity endorsement of a product, in this case it was judged correctly, it transpired that Sekine had enough depth (fukasa) to bring a special image to Ikon Breath O2 lenses. Once the celebrity had been decided on, the creative team was able to fix the tone and manner, expression and style of the advertising campaign as a whole.Sekine was a high class (or one set up up in Japanese-English parlance) celebrity who matched NFCs image of itself as a high class (ichiryu) company and who was made to refl ect that sense of eliteness in life and clothing. At the same time, NFC was a serious manufacturer and wanted a serious, rather than frivolous, personality who could then be photographed in soft-focus, serious poses to suit the serious medical product being advertised. This seriousness was expressed further by means of ery slightly tinted black and white photographs which, to the art directors but, not initially, the product managers eye made Sekine look even softer in appearance and so match the campaigns headline of yawaraka hard. This fog was further reinforced by the heart-shaped lens cut at the bottom of every print ad, and on the front of the brochure, which the art director made green rather than blue partially to differentiate the Ikon Breath O2 campaign from all other contact lens campaigns run at that time, and partly to appeal to the fad for ecological colours then-current among young women in particular.This case study shows that there is an extremely complex relati onship linking marketing and creative aspects of any advertising campaign. In this case, market research showed that Ikon Breath O2 lenses were special because of the safety that derived from their technical quality, but that consumers themselves were not interested in technical matters since their major concern was with comfort. Hence the need to focus the advertising campaign on user benefit.Yet the client insisted on stressing product benefit a positioning made more difficult for the creative team because it could not legally use the only real consumer benefit available to it (continuous wear), and so had to find something that would appeal to both manufacturer and direct and indirect consumers of the lens in question. In the end, the ideas of soft hard and serious were adopted as compromise positions for both client and agency, as well as for creative and marketing teams. Concluding Comments Let us in conclusion try to follow two separate lines of thought.One of these is, as p romised, the relationship between marketing and anthropology the other that between advertising and marketing. 9 Although convergence between anthropology, marketing and consumer research may be growing, the evidence suggested by the case study in this paper is that huge differences still exist. Marketing people in the advertising agency in which I examine may be interested in anthropology they may even have dipped into the work of anthropologists here and there. But their view of the discipline tends to be rather old-fashioned, and they certainly do not have time to go in for the kind of intensive, detail ethnographic nquiry of consumers that anthropologists might encourage.If anthropologists are to make a useful contribution to marketing, therefore, they need to present their material and analyses succinctly and in readily digestible form, since marketing people hate things that are overcomplicated. It is, perhaps, for this rather than any other reason that someone like Mary Doug las (Douglas and Isherwood 1979) has been so favourably received. In the end, marketing people aim to be positivist, science-like (rather than scientific, as such), and rationalist in their ad campaigns.They aspire to measure and predict on the basis of observer categories, if only because this is the simplest way to sell a campaign to a client. In this respect, they are hand-to-hand to the kind of sociology and anthropology advocated in the 1940s and 50s (which would explain their adoption of Talcott Parsonss theory of action, for example), than to the present-day interpretive trends in the discipline, and thus favour in their practices an outmoded and among most anthropologists themselves, discredited form of discourse.So, if anthropologists are kings of the castle, it is a castle most other people have never heard of (Chapman and Buckley 1997 234). As Malcolm Chapman and Peter Buckley wryly observe, we need perhaps to spend some time entirely outside social anthropology in ord er to be convinced of the truth of this fact. Secondly, as part of this positivist, science-like approach, marketers in the Japanese advertising agency tended to make clear-cut categories that would be easily understood by both their colleagues in other divisions in the Agency and by their clients.These categories tended to present the consumer world as a series of binary oppositions (between individual and group, modern and traditional, idealist and materialist, and so on cf. Lien 1997 202-8) that they then presented as matrix or quadripartite structures (the Agencys Purchase Decision Model, for example, was structured in terms of think/feel and high/low involvement axes). In this respect, their work could be said to exhibit a basic form of structuralism. One of these oppositions was that made between product benefit and user benefit (with its miscellaneous end benefit).As this case study has shown, this is a distinction that lies at the heart of all advertising and needs to be t eased out if we are successfully to decode particular advertisements in a manner that goes beyond the work of Barthes (1977), Williamson (1978), Goffman (1979) and others. Thirdly, one of the factors anchoring marketing to the kind of structured thinking characteristic of modernist disciplines, perhaps, is that the earthly concern of meaning in commodities is inextricably bound up with the establishment of a sense of difference between one object and all others of its class.After all, the three tasks of advertising are to stand out from the surrounding competition to attract peoples attention to communicate (both rationally and emotionally) what it is intended to communicate and to dispose people to buy or keep on buying what is advertised. The sole preoccupation of those engaged in the Ikon Breath 02 campaign was to create what they referred to as the parity break to set NFCs contact lenses apart from all other contact lenses on sale in Japan, and from all other products on the m arket.At the same time, the idea of parity break extended to the style in which the campaign was to be presented (tinted monochrome photo, green logo, and so on). In this respect, the structure of meaning in advertising is akin to that found in the syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes of structural linguistics where particular choices of words and phrases are influenced by the overall structure and availability of meanings in the language in which a speaker is communicating. That the work of LeviStrauss should be known to most marketers, therefore, is hardly surprising.Marketing practice is in many respects an application of the principles of structural anthropology to the selling of products. 10 Fourthly, although those working in marketing and consumer research take it as given that there is one-way flow of activity stemming from the manufacturer and targeted at the end consumer, in fact, as this case study shows, advertising as well as the marketing that an advertising agency condu cts on behalf of a client always addresses at least two audiences.One of these is, of course, the group of targeted consumers (even though they are somewhat removed from the direct experience of marketers in their work). In this particular case, to complicate the issue further, there were two groups of consumers, since the campaign had to address both young women and middle-aged male opticians. Another audience is the client. As we have seen, the assumed or proven dis/likes of both consumers and advertising client affect the final meaning of the products advertised, and the client in particular had to be satisfied with the Agencys campaign approach before consumer needs could be addressed.At the same time, we should recognise that a third audience exists among different members of the account team within the Agency itself, since each of the three separate parties involved in account servicing, marketing and creative work needed to be satisfied by the arguments of the other two. In this respect, perhaps, we should note that marketing people have spent a lot of time over the decades fashioning use of insights developed in learning behaviour, personality theory and psychoanalysis which they then apply to individual consumers.In the process, however, they have tended to overlook the forms of social organisation of which these individuals are a part (cf. de Groot 198044). Yet it is precisely the ways in which individual consumers interact that is crucial to an understanding of consumption and thus of how marketing should address its targeted audience how networks function, for example, reveals a lot about the vital role of word-of-mouth in marketing successes and failures how status groups operate and on what grounds can tell marketers a lot about the motivations and practices of their targeted audience.Anthropologists should be able to help by providing sociological analyses of these and other mechanisms pertinent to the marketing endeavour. In particular, their extensive work on ritual and symbolism should be of use in foreign, third world markets. Fifthly, most products are made to be sold.As a result, different manufacturers have in mind different kinds of sales strategies, target audiences, and marketing methods that have somehow to be translated into persuasive linguistic and visual images not only in advertising, but also in packaging and product design. For the most part, producers of the commodities in question find themselves obliged to call on the specialized services of copywriters and art designers who are seen to be more in tune with the consumers than are they themselves. This is how advertising agencies market themselves.But within any agency, the inception of advertising involves an ever-present stress between sales and marketing people, on the one hand, and creative staff, on the other between the not necessarily compatible demands for the dissemination of product and other market information, on the one hand, and for l inguistic and visual images that will attract consumers attention and push them into retail outlets to make purchases, on the other. This is not always taken into account by those currently writing about advertising.More interestingly, perhaps, the opposition that is perceived to exist between data and statistical analysis, on the one hand, and the creation of images, on the other, parallels that seen to pertain between a social science like economics or marketing and a more humanities-like discipline such as anthropology. Perhaps the role for an anthropology of marketing is to bridge this great divide.