Monday, September 23, 2019
THE LAW OF HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK - Essay Example According to the provisions of the common law, employers are required to safeguard the physical and psychological health of their employees. They are also required to provide a safe system of work, safe means of access, plant and equipment, and fellow employees. Furthermore, employees have to be protected from unnecessary risk of injury (Mcilroy, 2000). This duty of care is an implied obligation in a contract of employment. It had been the extant practice to permit employees to claim compensation from their employers if they were injured at the workplace, due to the negligence of the latter. The courts have commenced to grant compensation for psychological injuries caused by employers. In order to succeed in a claim for psychiatric injury, the applicant has to establish genuine psychological damage; presence of a causal link between the psychiatric injury and his employment; and that the psychiatric injury had been foreseeable by the employer (Mcilroy, 2000). Moreover, the applicant must submit expert opinion to establish psychiatric illness, in order to claim compensation. Stress in employment, gradually erodes the health of employees, and reduces self-esteem, confidence, and other abilities. Such employees are less likely to claim compensation from their employers (Mcilroy, 2000). ... The Employment Protection Act 1975 (Employment Protection Act (c. 71), 1975) provides rights related to time off, and these have been included in the Employment Rights Act 1996 (Employment Rights Act (c. 18), 1996). A few of these rights provide employees with paid time off and the other rights allow employees to avail themselves of unpaid time off. Specifically, section 50(4) of the Employment Rights Act 1996, requires the duration of time off and pertinent factors to be of a reasonable nature. This was clearly discernible in the Employment Appellate TribunalÃ¢â¬â¢s decision in Borders Regional Council v Maule, wherein the former stressed that there was to be a balance between the needs of the employer and the rights of the employee (Borders Regional Council v Maule, 1993). Health and Safety at Work It is to be examined, whether the corporate law firm, is in breach of the provisions of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act of 1974. In instances involving work related stress an em ployee can initiate legal action against his employer in the County Court or High Court, or apply to an Employment Tribunal. The first ruling regarding negligence arose in Walker v Northumberland County Council. In this case, it was held that it was reasonable to foresee risk of psychiatric injury, if the concerned employee had already undergone a nervous breakdown. All the same, this was not to be construed to imply that an employer could continue to subject an employee to excessive stress, until the latter suffered a stress related injury. In Garratt v London Borough of Camden, the Court of Appeal opined that a significant proportion of the population underwent nervous breakdowns and depression, and that quite a few of these individuals were
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Computer forenscis - Article Example Customization and optimization; the source code can be modified; therefore, the OS can be customized to suit the requirements of a particular lab. Support; its Adhoc support is excellent; mailing lists answer calls and provide assistance within minutes. It offers fast implementation of feature and patch requests. Disadvantages; requires retraining, learning Linux takes time and effort, and the command line is not intuitive. Support; Linux offers no formal support organization. Support queries are direct to the community, and the answer quality varies considerably. Interoperating; interoperating with proprietary technologies is difficult, implementation takes time and may even be incomplete. Volunteer development effort; many projects are in perpetual development stage and may be edgy, poorly documented and abandoned (Wolfe). In a forensic lab setting, both Linux and Windows have advantages and disadvantages. They are different but employ similar tools. The main difference is the approach taken in obtaining and interpreting the data. Recovery of data is crucial in forensics, and this is where Linux has an upper hand over Windows. Data on Linux is held for months even on heavily used systems. Linux file system avoids file fragmentation, and data remain clustered together. Deleted files are, therefore, easily recoverable on Linux than on Windows. Also, everything in Linux is noted as a file, and this translates to; any transaction occurring in Linux will leave traces
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and Lord of the Flies both deal with mans struggle to control his inner evil Essay Example for Free
Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and Lord of the Flies both deal with mans struggle to control his inner evil Essay How do the authorss show this struggle? In the strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson presents mans struggle to control his inner evil through Jekyll but the evil comes out in Hyde. Dr Jekyll is a fine upstanding member of the community and Mr Hyde is still Jekyll but he has no conscience and no sense of responsibility and so goes on wild evil rampages, I am going to explore how Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde show their evils. Dr Jekyll is a moral and religious man and has a conscience but he is attracted to the violence and freedom of Hyde and for him turning into Hyde is like a drug, he is addicted. Dr Jekyll is in a constant struggle with Hyde for control if I am the chief of sinners I am the chief of sufferers also, which shows the constant torment he is in yet he still drinks the drug. Before the smile was struck out of his face and succeeded by an expression of abject terror and despair, as froze the blood of the two gentleman below, this shows that Jekyll is scared of turning into Hyde and it also gives a picture of the ferocity of Hyde. Jekyll becomes weak from Hyde and eventually Hyde takes over completely Dr Jekyll, looking deadly sick. He did not rise to meet his visitor, but held out a cold hand and bade him welcome in a changed voice, this shows that Hyde is slowly trying to kill Jekyll. Jekyll decided to kill Hyde Utterson, I swear to god Utterson I am done with him in this world,I cannot say that I care what becomes of Hyde I am quite done with him, Utterson says to Jekyll he meant to murder you, which shows that Jekyll is good to have got rid of Hyde but Jekyll still takes the potion and Hyde continues his torments and Eventually kills Jekyll. God knows I am careless this is my true hour of death and what is to follow concerns another than myself, that was Jekylls final transformation before his death. Edward Hyde is the beast that takes Henry Jekyll over he is a small deformed man the man seems hardly human troglodytic shall we say, I read Satans signature upon a face, like a monkey, these all describe Hyde it is like Hyde is a step back in evolution. Hyde is also very fast it went so quick, with extraordinary quickness, these both show the speed oh Hyde so we now that he is animal like and very quick, he is also very savage as he has no conscience for the man trampled calmly over the childs body and left her screaming on the ground, really like Satan, these both show his ferocity, there are also a lot of satanic references to Hyde which suggests that he is the work of the devil. Other people perceive Hyde as being a juggernaut, without the bowels of mercy, a spirit of enduring hatred, which shows that he disgusts them. Hyde hates Jekyll because he thinks he is weak and pathetic but he still fears Jekyll because he knows that Jekyll has the power to cut him off by suicide how he fears my power to cut him off by suicide, blasphemies on the pages of my books, burning letters and destroying the portrait of my father, by doing these things Hyde is trying to demoralise Jekyll because it seems that the weaker Jekyll gets the stronger Hyde gets. As Jekyll gets ill Hyde feeds off his weakness making himself stronger the powers of Hyde have grown stronger with the sickliness of Jekyll, this shows that Hyde is very powerful and can force Jekyll to do anything. I think at first Jekyll finds Hyde exciting and adventurous and he loves the feeling of having no conscience. Jekyll and Hyde are like polar twins, being the same yet very opposite. Jekyll also has biblical references because the thrill of Hyde tempts him like the tree in the bible tempts Adam and Eve. This story shows that man has always been evil it is just hidden behind a mask and Hyde pulled this mask from Jekyll revealing the evil inside after all they are the same person. Lord of the Flies is much the same as Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde because they both deal with mans struggle to control his inner evil, but however in Lord of the Flies it is children who are evil and not adults like in Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, so does this show that you are born evil? It certainly challenges the idea that you are born free from sin, as some of the children in Lord of the Flies are from private schools and you would think to be better brought up and you could say somewhat shielded from the world, but the children who were from a public education system behaved better and tried to overthrow to the evil that lay on the island. Lord of the flies shows emotions through its characters, Piggy who represents conscience and logic, Simon who represents Jesus and Jack and Ralph who are the leaders of the two gangs (good and evil). At the beginning of the novel it is hard to differentiate between the good and bad people because they have all just met each other and are all trying to out do each other in a bid to be popular but does this in itself show that maybe they are all evil? When the two gangs split up and start living separately its like Jekyll and Hyde because its like one gang is Jekyll and the other gang Hyde and as the story goes on the Hyde gang tries to kill the Jekyll gang. Also the Hyde gang use masks when hunting for food body held up a mask that drew their eyes and appalled them. He began to dance and his laughter became a bloodthirsty snarling, this shows that by putting masks on they are acting like Hyde transforming them from laughter to being snarling and bloodthirsty. Jack hid liberated from shame and self consciousness, this is exactly How Jekyll feels When he transforms in to Hyde because he is liberated from all consciousness and feels free to do whatever he wants. When Jacks gang are wearing these masks they launch attacks on Ralphs gang, the results of which end up in the death of Piggy, so all conscience and logic is removed and then as all they are removed we see the breakdown of their community and the good gang becomes equally as vicious as the bad gang showing that evil is like a disease that cant be healed and just keeps spreading. Simon also dies of an epileptic shock and this signifies that as he is the Jesus figure surely all hope and good is lost now, this is like when Jekyll becomes so ill he lets Hyde take over he was so frail he only raised a hand to bade him a welcome, and shows that there is no going back now evil has taken a strong hold on the island and can only get worse, good can no longer triumph over evil. When the navy finally rescues the boys nobody knows what has happened the island and they can only assume that the missing boys were killed in the plane crash. This shows mans naivety and arrogance to think that young innocent boys couldnt have brutally murdered one boy and left another to die, this reflects Jekyll and Hyde by the way in which nobody realises that a fine upstanding member of the community could possibly be a murderer although it is without his knowing but the boys on the island are young and you could say that without their parents and rules, they cant differentiate between right and wrong. Jekyll and Hyde was written in the Victorian times and it does challenge the idea of inner evil but good eventually wins because in the Victorian times people were moral and blind to the evil lurking before them and so sin was eventually killed in Jekyll and Hyde. In Lord of the Flies however you could say the evil triumphs which is the case in todays modern society, but the children are rescued from the evil they have created which you could argue that maybe good triumphs over evil after all. Both authors say that evil is in us and not around us and that without rules evil will show itself more fully. Evil is a tempting attractive power that gives you freedom but if you are truly evil can you be truly happy? We all see evil but can we see our own? Maybe these novels are trying to show us that maybe we should look inside ourselves and see if we are truly evil or is evil just something we use as an excuse to hurt people?
Friday, September 20, 2019
Understanding Sustainability in Architecture Chapter 1: Understanding Sustainability in Architecture Project Objectives The essay primarily intends to investigate inclusion of the sustainable environmental design by architectural professional and school of architecture in their practice and academics. Sustainability has been buzz word from late 60s and continuously becoming and will be important in field of built environment. Lets see some of the definitions of sustainability in built environment. Sustainable design is described as a philosophical approach to design that seeks to maximize the quality of the built environment while minimizing or eliminating the negative impact to the environment (McLennan, 2004, P.P.10). Sustainability in architecture has many facets such as Natural Resource planning, Environmental, Social, Technological and Adaptability/flexibility to the changing world. In practice, design is better able to respond quickly to the here and now and to envisage the future, than is policy development (Williamson, Radford Bennetts 2003). However the implementation of the aspects of the sustainability is quiet debatable in the professional practice at mass level. For the mass level implementation policy level intervention is necessary as the policy is indirectly affecting the project. There are certain aspects of sustainability such as the economic and impact on the environment might be considered to a certain extent. Probably impact on the environment is considered due to statutory requirement for obtaining the development permissions for typically larger development projects. There are no set formula to achieve sustainability in architecture, but a proper balance of appropriate technologies, energy efficient, eco-friendly architecture would show the way us direction. Along with this, the social and cultural aspects should not be overlooked. The answer is probably that we shall never find single satisfactory definition but the searching is more important than finding (Bryan Lawson (2002) Sustainability in the built environment is unremitting process. Therefore we (Architect) need to update our self about all aspect in order response the situation .The conscious evaluation of the buildings should be done with respect the energy efficiency, economy, user response, and impact on the environment. There is need to promote sustainability in all the possible ways, one then would be by designing the sustainable building and transferring, maintaining ethic by educating our future vice versa . Background In 2007, the UK government declared that all new housing and schools should be zero carbon by 2016 and all buildings are expected to be zero carbon by 2019. So students admitting in this year (2009) should equip with sustainable design tools at the time they graduate. The architectural practice as well as academics should be ready for the situation. Students entering architecture programmes in 2009 need to have all the skills necessary to meet these requirements by the time they graduate. The two questions facing the design community are: how can we enable architectural educators and students to respond appropriately to the challenge of climate change and what are the new pedagogic paradigms that are required to facilitate this? The last UK review of architectural education in relation to sustainable design teaching revealed a major split between studio teaching and academic lecturing in technology. At the same time, Guy and Moore have identified that there are many plural approaches to sustainable design in architecture, making it difficult to formulate any changes unless these are directly responsive to the modes and cultures of teaching involved. They have called for symposia and other dialogical spaces that can address matters pragmatically. This paper identifies key barriers and opportunities within the UK architectural edu cation system in relation Problem identification Problem at academic level Problem at practice level Problems at social level The essay intends to find out whether the professional architects and academics believe in sustainable environmental design in their thought process in practice or academics. This would gives clue why this not happening in practice and academics, further this build foundation for what should be done to cultivate values sustainable environmental design in the practice as well as academics. This essay also intends the find out the what is actually helping or retarding the implementation of the sustainable environmental design. This findings of attitudes at practise level is very important in a way, as at professional level architects tends to obtain specific knowledge about sustainability without caring the ethical issues aside There are different views regarding inclusion and exclusion of the sustainable environmental design in practices as well as also in academics. Following relevant arguments from the advisory board meeting which postulates views of architect regarding sustainability in architecture and process of academics as well the accreditation. I am surprised when other practices do not take environmental design and sustainability in to account (Bill Gething RIBA and Feilden and Bradely Studios) Further he argued that sustainable environmental design is personalized approach for design, professionals often learn this from case studies,courses,books,articles. Mr.John Pringle people do not value energy efficiency and carbon reduction it has to come from the legislative framework.I kind of partially disagree on this argument.In my view we cannot change peoples thinking by the legislative framework although its one way of doing it. I partially I feel its partially architects responsibility educate the client. As per Mr. Mario most important aspect is to understands relation of building with environment and teaching the creativity,sensitivity in Architecture.We may have Broad range of interpretations for the word creativity and sensitively. In my view creativity is really something that cannot be taught what the best we can do is we can environment which provoke creativity .Further urges to look at the vernacular architecture and understand the unseen environmental design reasons. The accreditation process in European countries differs in terms of durations and process of accreditation.The environmental design is optional but still possibility of the students to opt.According to him the building regulations are compromising the implementation of the environmental design. In Germany the syllabus is similar to European rules i.e. 4 years degree followed by 2 years of practice. Environmental design is not measurable concept (Mr. Oliver Heiss ). This quiet valid argument in way environmental is truly non quantifiable it is developed thru experience and practice In Belgium the structure of architecture quiet different in way they have two diplomas i.e. architect engineer and engineer architect, years of study is 5 years academic and 2 years of professional practice. The evaluation of accreditation takes place after every 6 years. According to him there is not enough understanding and knowledge about the subject. In United Kingdom the course duration is 7 years i.e. 3 years under graduate studies 2 years diploma and 2 years of the professional practice. RIBA has introduced minimum requirement environmental design in Architecture but it has been interpreted by each school differently. You need registration to practice but you dont need registration for designing building. In Spain its architectural course duration is 6 years. The major hurdle is student lack of interest and lecturers lack of knowledge, further the new regulation approved in Spain is drafted by engineers so doesnt include architectural components. Mr Mario states suggested continuous professional development is a key. While Mr. Simos stressed on sensitivity of the subject. Mr .Geathing spoke about the gap between the code prediction and actual energy used. Mr Simos postulate need of evaluation of the building critically. According to Mr.Sabestian simplification of basics for architecture and can have specialist for environmental design. Mr Jolan urges to consider the heritage conservation in the environmental design. Mr. Brian stressed need built up knowledge at undergraduate level and in his opinion students must get the basics right at undergraduate level. These views expressed are diverse, important and practical. I feel its a collective responsibility of universities; accreditation councils and most importantly need from our society.Although boundary is quiet between these stakeholders. Research question Do Professional Architects and Academics consider sustainable environmental design in their Practice and academic curriculum? Since the sustainable environmental design is broad subjects with many facets to it, for ease of understanding lets grouped this aspects as shown below Ecology and Energy aspects Passive environmental design Energy efficiency and carbon neutrality Renewable energy system Ecological management of resources User aspects Occupant comfort and well being Social sustainability The question investigates the attitudes of the Academics and architectural professionals. Subsequently question would require evidences from the both the worlds that is from the academics and professionals. By answering the question would lead to unveil the changing outlook of the potential architects regarding the sustainable environmental design. The section we would detail out the evidences and draw some hypotheses from the research methods. These hypotheses later tested on the secondary information. In order to answer the question research, the research method cannot be as simple or really straight forward due to the complexity of the problem to address. For the ease of understanding lets divide the question in to two parts. The first part deals with the understanding the thought process and design process of the design professionals. This would give the clue regarding what is going wrong at what level. This can be primarily be done through Semi- structured interviews of Building professionals to know their views and aspirations about the Sustainable environmental design and would also investigates whether they practice the Sustainable environmental design in their practice . Testing their view by analyzing the case studies Second part would be of academics these involves knowing the attitudes of the tutors via semi structured interview and also analyzing the course curriculum for inclusion of the sustainable environmental design in curriculum. Later the I intended look at the list of the thesis of the architecture thesis and dissertation in order understand whether budding architects attitudes towards sustainable environmental design. The further this study intends to reveal if there is differences between the academics and professional world. This would be necessary because professionals relay on their theoretical knowledge in the initial years and their analytical skill. This process of investigation would also revel if architects feel that inclusion of SED may marginalize their creative ability. Lastly the answering of the research question would exposed the changing attitudes of the new generations towards sustainable environmental design. Chapter 2: Literature review In order to solidify the argument of this essay, I have done some literature study of the similar topics. One of which is Learning from practice: a model for integrating sustainable design in architectural education by Maureen Trebilcock Where author has prepared the theoretical model for the integrating the sustainable environmental design in the architecture education. As part of methodology author had selected five case studies from Architects who are well known in the field of sustainable design. Here all the selected buildings were non Residential nature. Reason selecting non residential building is not clarified. Further my opinion there should be at least one residential building to get flavour of the Domestic as well as non domestic building. Reason for this is quantitatively housing forms major portion of any development. The case studies suggest that architectural education requires the development of attitudes, knowledge and skills crossing over intuitive, analytical and social dimensions in order to face the uniqueness and complexity of sustainable design.( Maureen Trebilcock 2008). There has been series of work shop held on the architectural education on climate change . The design of human settlements is a key factor for addressing carbon emissions, finite resource availability, ecological deterioration and climate change. The role of architectural education in promoting the principles and practices which address these issues is significant. New pedagogic paradigms are required to produce graduates endowed with holistic competences including environmental knowledge related to sustainable design.( FIONN STEVENSON1, ANDREW ROBERTS2, SERGIO ALTOMONTE)3 pertaining to this paper would form input to the essay in terms of understanding the barriers to the successful implementation of the Sustainable design in to the curriculum. Primary aim was to contribute to the development of environmental responsibility as a creative factor in the practice and pedagogy of architecture. As concept of the implementing sustainability (envisaging it would be transform in to practise) this paper reviews inferences learning form the workshops and ,and discussing the new methodologies and curriculum and also conflict between the sustainability between the other building sciences and in higher education and professional practise . As concept I like the idea of the representative built environments schools of different universities come together discuss the strength and weakness of the curriculum and form strategies for new teaching methodologies and syllabus which would probably reduce the conflict bet sustainability and other building disciplines in way if feel this concept as the as partially isolated in terms involvement of practise,which are the producer of the building stock. Involving the professions in to the workshop only can get ideal views so in way as concept I feel it kind of stitching and what is required much more intensified to achieve the deadline.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Moliere is undoubtedly one of the most interesting and famous French writers ever. His comedic plays capture the reader with a a perfect blend of intelligent and slap stick jokes. He mastered the "strange enterprise of amusing decent people"(Guicharnaud, 2) with this simple philosophy: "Nothing is more effective(in making people laugh) then holding up the mirror to nature."(Guicharnaud, 21) Jean-Baptiste Poquelin was born in Paris on January 15, 1662. His father and Mother where both interior decorators for the king, although his mother died when Jean-Baptise was ten years of age. He was sent to College de Claremont, an aristocratic Jesuit institution. Poquelin took a degree in law, which he never used in practice, and moved back to work with his father. When he turned of age, he shocked his family by declaring he would not succeed his fathers position. Instead , he took the stage name "Moliere", and began his career as a thespian. He spent a short time in a debtor's prison and then immediately fled Paris. Thus began the most important stage in Moliere's young life. Moliere wondered about France, learning the trade of which he would eventually master, and become famous for. He learned how to handle everything about the stage. From writing, to acting, to controlling unhappy crowds that where armed with fruits and vegetables as missiles. Immediately, his own skits and plays where a success. His entire career was almost one of continuous success. He worked his own theater, with his own troupe(organization of actors) of which he was president. Louis the XIV was one of his biggest patrons. For fifteen years he managed, wrote, acted and organized performance at his theater. On February 17, 1673 Moli... ... to make them realize there false preciosity. He succeeds in mortifying them, and they depart from his home. In his time, the effort towards distinction became very popular. Although to us some of the ridulous antics of the two girls trying to seem prestigous are too far fetched to be realistic, they are "exact, not exagerated."(Bishop, 3) In writing it, he made many realize how ridiculous their actions where, maybe aleaving his anoyance. This practice though, still exists today. Too a good portion of the poplulation it will be a way of life. Now a days many young people attempt to be "cool" by buying the latest clothes and practicing all the latest trends. This is of course an effort to be more prestigious to there peers, and thus is human nature. As with all Moliere plays, they are still relevant in todays world, after all human nature is ageless.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Apathetic Generation The Ã¢â¬Å"Greatest Generation,Ã¢â¬ the generation of our grandparents, was the generation that beat the enemy down in the European and Pacific theater with pure determination and will. That generation showed past and future generations what it meant to be a strong, steadfast, and hardworking nation with determination. During this election, rumors of a draft, a draft to help fray some of the casualties that we have been encoring while fighting the War on Terror, have circulated. The re-staffing of draft boards and the introduction of a draft reinstatement bills by Rep. Charles Rangel (D-NY) can be looked upon as a catalyst to these rumblings. Young adults across the nation have been in chat rooms talking about how this war is another Vietnam and how there is no way they will be drafted. This is such a touchy subject that President Bush said during the debate that the U.S. Armed Forces will stay an all-volunteer force. Our grandparentsÃ¢â¬â¢ generation would never have said how they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t go to war if the government asked them. You may say that was a different time. But both WWII and this war began with attacks on our soil. If the draft is reinstated, would that be the worst thing to happen to this country? I admit it would be a devastating blow to us in regards to morale, but it would not be the worst thing to happen . Our generation is a generation of softies. We have no idea what it means to sacrifice things like metal, iron, pantyhose, and even butter for the greater good of a national cause. Our generation has a bigger fight than the Ã¢â¬Å"Greatest Generation.Ã¢â¬ We are fighting a war with an ideology, not a government. We are fighting a group of people who hate us because of our love for freedom. If a draft is part of the American fabric, we should be leery of it. But at the same time, if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the men to fight this war, we will lose our way of life, a way of life that may never be regained. This period of history is the most uncertain in modern times. We may disagree with the politics of the day, but if you take the politics away you still have a war that needs to be won. Won with the characteristics of the Ã¢â¬Å"Greatest GenerationÃ¢â¬ that have been lost within the era of computers and self indulgence.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã At some point in the life of every individual, certain events and changes occur that shape the person into how they will behave and appear in the future. The life of an individual either starts to blossom with opportunity or starts going through a consistent downward spiral. How does it work out perfectly for some and go wrong for others? Macbeth is a prime example of how one decision can alter life forever. As Macbeth tries to successfully pursue his prophecies, his mind and body slowly deteriorate until he has nothing left to live for. Tillyard once explained that the human mind works through reason, will, and passion (Tillyard-The Elizabethan World Picture). These ideas are somewhat parallel to MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Once he begins feeling guilty of his actions, fearful of being caught, and driven to have total control, the motives of his mind are gradually moving from being thought out with reason, to will, and finally to passion. As Macbeth makes his desc ent into death, his passion to be king gradually takes control his whole being. At the lowest point of his existence there is no reason left inside him. His mind is so busy and crazy that he no longer has the ability to make thoughtful and insightful decisions. He goes from being a loyal and careful servant to a deceitful and scattered ruler. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s path into insanity begins when Macbeth first hears the witches refer to him as the thane of Cawdor and reveal that he will be the king (1.3.51-53). The prediction makes no sense to him and the thought that Duncan would no longer be king leaves him completely confused and fearful of the future. When he does become the thane of Cawdor, however, he immediately wonders if his prediction could really speak the truth. Macbeth imagines the King being murdered and himself becoming king but immediately shows regret and tries to forget ever thinking such an absurd scene (1.3.164). His regret for imagining this along with logic and reason force him to decide that if the prophecies are meant to happen they will whether he gets involved or not: Ã¢â¬Å"If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me,/Without my stirÃ¢â¬ (1.3.155-156). Macbeth convinces himself that he will not interfere with the predictions at all. Despite his good intentions, when Dunc an crowns Malcolm as the Prince of Cumberland, giving him the title of future king, Macbeth acknowledges that this is an obstacle that interferes with his prophecy of being king: Ã¢â¬Å"The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step/On which I must fall down, or else oÃ¢â¬â¢er-leap,/For in my way it liesÃ¢â¬ (1. The Destruction of Macbeth :: essays research papers fc Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã At some point in the life of every individual, certain events and changes occur that shape the person into how they will behave and appear in the future. The life of an individual either starts to blossom with opportunity or starts going through a consistent downward spiral. How does it work out perfectly for some and go wrong for others? Macbeth is a prime example of how one decision can alter life forever. As Macbeth tries to successfully pursue his prophecies, his mind and body slowly deteriorate until he has nothing left to live for. Tillyard once explained that the human mind works through reason, will, and passion (Tillyard-The Elizabethan World Picture). These ideas are somewhat parallel to MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Once he begins feeling guilty of his actions, fearful of being caught, and driven to have total control, the motives of his mind are gradually moving from being thought out with reason, to will, and finally to passion. As Macbeth makes his desc ent into death, his passion to be king gradually takes control his whole being. At the lowest point of his existence there is no reason left inside him. His mind is so busy and crazy that he no longer has the ability to make thoughtful and insightful decisions. He goes from being a loyal and careful servant to a deceitful and scattered ruler. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s path into insanity begins when Macbeth first hears the witches refer to him as the thane of Cawdor and reveal that he will be the king (1.3.51-53). The prediction makes no sense to him and the thought that Duncan would no longer be king leaves him completely confused and fearful of the future. When he does become the thane of Cawdor, however, he immediately wonders if his prediction could really speak the truth. Macbeth imagines the King being murdered and himself becoming king but immediately shows regret and tries to forget ever thinking such an absurd scene (1.3.164). His regret for imagining this along with logic and reason force him to decide that if the prophecies are meant to happen they will whether he gets involved or not: Ã¢â¬Å"If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me,/Without my stirÃ¢â¬ (1.3.155-156). Macbeth convinces himself that he will not interfere with the predictions at all. Despite his good intentions, when Dunc an crowns Malcolm as the Prince of Cumberland, giving him the title of future king, Macbeth acknowledges that this is an obstacle that interferes with his prophecy of being king: Ã¢â¬Å"The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step/On which I must fall down, or else oÃ¢â¬â¢er-leap,/For in my way it liesÃ¢â¬ (1.
Ã¢â¬Å"A Visit of CharityÃ¢â¬ by Eudora Welty and Ã¢â¬Å"The Use of ForceÃ¢â¬ by William Carlos Williams are both engrossing short stories featuring two young female characters who must face an ailment. Eudora Welty touches on a social ailment, using an indifferent teenage girl as takeoff point, and portrays the abandonment of the elderly in a home that is as cold as the treatment they are subjected to. On the other hand, Williams tackles a physical ailment, and he depicts how a medical practitioner will go to great lengths not to neglect his duty, even if he encounters resistance. Welty takes on a serious, somewhat mocking tone, while Williams is thoroughly amusing and almost comical, yet very realistic. In WeltyÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, a teenage named girl Marian is the protagonist who temporarily leaves the confines of her cloistered existence to visit a home for the aged to fulfill a requirement for Campfire Girls, a group that seeks to develop character in the young.Ã Instead of gaining the expected social benefits from the visit, Marian ironically develops great uneasiness and retreats. Both short story titles reflect their themes and plot, although the titles may have other implications. Ã¢â¬Å"VisitÃ¢â¬ in WeltyÃ¢â¬â¢s short story implies MarianÃ¢â¬â¢s fleeting and superficial encounterÃ with elderly women in the institution. Another possible meaning of the title, Ã¢â¬Å"A Visit of CharityÃ¢â¬ is that in the world of Ã apathetic young people, there may be an instance when life offers an opportunity to look beyond themselves and show helpfulness or compassion for fellow human Ã beings. The title may be seen then as a case of Charity paying Marian a visit by offering her the opportunity to help or give solace or relief to the needy. Ã Being young and preoccupied with her personal agenda, though, she fails, as most young people do, to enrich herself from a special opportunity to reach out and be of service to others. As for Ã¢â¬Å"The Use of ForceÃ¢â¬ by William Carlos Williams, the title at first glimpse conjures a serious or frightening situation like the application of brute force, a common subject in many literary works. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Use of ForceÃ¢â¬ by Williams, we see instead the firm hand Ã of a physician who responds to the call of duty as he overcomes the temporary setback of an unwilling and naughty, young patient who resists him. The setting, characters, events and situations in both short stories come alive through the use of vivid language. When Welty describes the home for the aged asÃ having walls that bounce off Ã¢â¬ the winter sunlight like a block of iceÃ¢â¬ (Welty 245) and corridors that Ã¢â¬Å"smell like the interior of a clockÃ¢â¬ (Welty 246), she lets readers in on the pitiable plight of the elderly women who endure not just the poorly illuminated and unkempt dwelling place but also the neglect and contempt of people entrusted to care for them, or society as a whole. Welty uses a lot of similes like these as the story progresses. William likewise uses figures of speech like personification as he amusingly narrates his experience with the impish Mathilda, the sick child with overprotective parents who are easily swayed by her whims but who care for her well-being. Williams, for instance describes the antagonist as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"The child was fairly eating me up with her cold, steady eyesÃ¢â¬ (Stuber). There are also symbolisms in each short story.Ã In Ã¢â¬Å"A Visit of Charity,Ã¢â¬ the potted plant that Marian brings to the home for the aged is just a thing or gift that is expected of a visitor.Ã In the same way, the elderly ladies are placed in the home because it is the right thing to do, even if they are not given the genuine warmth and attention they deserve as human beings. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Use of Force,Ã¢â¬ the parents of the sick child represent a bygone era, when medicine was not yet fully developed as a science and old-fashioned remedies were resorted to.Ã The doctor may therefore represent the western worldÃ¢â¬â¢s modern man or Ã¢â¬Å"saviorÃ¢â¬ of those afflicted with illness. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Visit of CharityÃ¢â¬ by Eudora Welty, the main character desires or concentrates on her own personal advantage.Ã In contrast, Ã¢â¬Å"The Use of ForceÃ¢â¬ by William Carlos Williams depicts a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s selfless concern to be of help to his patient. In both short fiction stories, the characters interact and engage in dialogue as part of a first-time encounter. The dialogue breathes life to the personalities of the characters, allowing readers to visualize and relate to them better, while also advancing the plot and making the story even more interesting. Both authors lend credibility to the main charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ views by first establishing their age, gender. task or occupation, and the social class they represent as seen from their mode of dressing and speech. Overall, both William Carlos Williams and Eudora Welty are masters of the short story form who are effectively able to convey important social themes through imagery and characterization, among other elements of short fiction. Works Cited Stuber, Irene. Ã¢â¬Å"The Use of Force by William Carlos Williams (1883-1963).Ã¢â¬ Classic Short Stories. 1995. 17 July 2008 . Welty, Eudora. Ã¢â¬Å"A Visit of Charity.Ã¢â¬ Modern Satiric Stories: The Impropriety Principle. Ed. Gregory Fitzgerald. Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1971. 245-246.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Introduction Organization is a social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals .All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between the different activities and the members, and subdivides and assigned roles, responsibility and authority to carry out different task (Sorenson, 1999, p. 76). Initially I will give a brief back ground about organisation of my placement, the Primary task, Authority and issues of diversity and inter-professional working. Interpersonal skills of a mental health professional are essential for an effective multidisciplinary team member, interpersonal skills, characteristics and attitudes are key to team working. Individuals on a team should be encouraged, through reflective practice and appropriate support, to examine their own characteristics and how they might adapt to a team environment. It is also important to recognize that while mental health professionals may have well-developed skills within their own area of expertise, it should not be assumed that they have all of the skills needed to collaborate effectively with others as part of a team. There is the primary task (also referred to as functional task or work task), this corresponds with the mission of an organization. Most organizations face multiple tasks all vying to be expressed in the service of the primary task. This is the point where authority, becomes central, i.e. the person who decides what task has priority. It is the authority boundary in conjunction with the task boundary that helps the task become clear and for the work of the group to be taken on successfully. (Hayden and Molenkamp, 2002, p. 7). Absent clarity at the authority boundary, destructive chaos is likely to result and the survival of the group is in peril. While in some instances such a collapse is desirable for the new to arise and for the task to be met. Yet from the perspective of the group that dies, the loss continues to live well after the time boundary passes. The primary task of my group in the organization, include case management, analysis of social welfare policies, and Care managementÃ¢â¬â¢ was considered to be fundamental element of the community care reforms in the 1990 Act. In 2003 one in ten of local authority social workers were employed as care managers but it is difficult to know what this meant in terms of their roles and function. In theory the core tasks included: case finding and referral; assessment and selection; care planning and service packaging; monitoring and re-assessment; and case closure. (Knapp et al, 2005: 40). Functions that team the play for society was our objectives as a team was to create a society in the next two decades in which no child lives in poverty and where all children have opportunities to realize their potential. Improving opportunities for disadvantaged children is at the heart of our strategy. Ã (HM Treasury 1999, p. 39). As with older people, the consistent message that disabled people have given about the services they receive is that they do not adequately meet their needs. Research by Jenny Morris in the early 1990s found that statutory services were inflexible; were only available for the most basic personal care tasks; tended to `fit the client to the serviceÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than the service to the client; were provided in a way that reduced independence; and were only available to people in their own home so they could not be helped to go out, either to social activities or to work. Authority boundaries and facilitating structures, the role of authority boundaries and structures is to provide a space or object for the anxiety and worry work to be displaced among social workers, so that the group can attend to the task realistically and appropriately. The term leader acts out as the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ambivalence and splitting. Interpreting this situation through HirschhornÃ¢â¬â¢s model suggests problematic consequences. The issue groups volunteers to take up the organizational tasks and attendant risks offered and accepted authority and, using ColinÃ¢â¬â¢s facilitating structures, did important work; they thus entered the virtuous cycle. This process, however, reduced the authority and increased the anxiety in the top team; they were likely to be heading for a vicious cycle of anxiety, leading to social defences, and therefore dysfunctional process and inhibiting structure. Thus, there were two competing processes: one facilitating change and the other undermining it. All organizations have socially constructed defences against the anxiety which is aroused through carrying out the primary task of the organization ( Isabel Menzies 1970 p.496) These social defences may be evident in the organization structure, in its procedures, information systems, roles, in its culture, and in the gap between what the organizations says it is doing and what it is actually doing. Social defences are Ã¢â¬Å"createdÃ¢â¬ unconsciously by members of the organization through their interactions in carrying out the primary task. Social defaces helps the top team rarely to operate in the Ã¢â¬Å"work groupÃ¢â¬ mode; basic assumption behavior is more prevalent. The term leader, in his leadership, yet an analysis of the top teamÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamics suggests a high degree of basic assumption dependence. Additionally, lack human diversity within any given organization if the workplace is within, to coin (HirschhornÃ¢â¬â¢s, 1988 pp.39) term, then the learning organization must account for the variety of images that obtrude from the personal histories of each member. The work of (Kets de Vries and Miller 1985, pp.239) illustrates clearly the consequences of the neurotic qualities of managers permeating the working relations within an organization. Additionally, an element of diversity is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s age and life stage (pp.246) .On a different front writers such as (Gilligan 1982 pp.23) and (Schachtel , 1989 pp.214) Ã have argued in their own ways that gender influences strongly the way in which men and women engage with their world. The learning disabilities which Senge sees connected to structural manifestations of hierarchy and segmentation may be understood more deeply as evidence of patriarchal, phallocentric modes of engagement. Yet a reading of Senge shows no consideration of neurosis, age or gender, let alone libido, in the dynamics of the learning process. Furthermore, he does not consider how any one of these affects a personÃ¢â¬â¢s readiness to learn, which differs substantially between people at different times. He asserts that the learning organization is one which will end the war between home and work when managers realize that effective parenting is the model for leadership. Knowlden (1998) suggested that experience impact on a social worker ability to be caring; as a student social worker I was often overwhelmed by the working environment. This could imply that it is not the amount of experience which is important, but the length of time it takes for a social work to acclimatize. Support mechanisms such as preceptorship and clinical supervision may, therefore, have a role in facilitating compassionate care. (PearceyÃ¢â¬â¢s 2007 p.29) study offers some support for WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s views. As a social work I observed that qualified social workers mainly cared for patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ medical needs, with the core element delegated to junior practitioners. Many years ago a Ã¢â¬Ëtask-centredÃ¢â¬â¢ approach to organizing care was proposed as a possible defence mechanism against the anxiety that a more interpersonal style of working creates (Menzies, 1970 p.258). This may offer some insight into the behaviour of social workers who seek refuge in form filling and other activities not directly related to care. Social worker students from different health disciplines often have little idea of what each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s roles entail. Inter-professional learning increase this knowledge, as well as giving students an understanding of the interpersonal skills needed for liaison and communication. Every professional has its own roles, skills and responsibilities making for efficient practices in curing, managing or treating particular ailments, but has this always created cohesive team working in day-to-day working life. In my social worker practice fitting in the organization hierarchy was a problem, and I was not able to question, share knowledge and learn together without professional and defensive boundaries. Often, an institutional hierarchy may obstruct the flow of communication and prevent a person from contributing and feeling valued, which ultimately can negatively affect patient care (Reynolds, 2005 p.19). More longitudinal studies are needed that follow through and beyond my undergraduate studies, along with critical observation of the learning process. Standardizing in the curricula of all health professionals can improve key skills and prepare students for their careers by driving up standards of professionalism and best practice. Sometimes, in the hierarchy of the hospital, it is hard to know what one place is as a student social worker student. When one is it the bottom of the totem pole. Ã No one in this hospital is lower than me. I think most of us have probably gotten that vibe at some point, even if it hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been explicitly articulated. Ã ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s the simple fact that, in some ways, we are occasionally more of a burden to the hospital than a benefit. Ã ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a constant between trying to be useful, trying to learn something and really make the most of rotation, and simply not getting in the way. For example Ã¢â¬Å"one of social worker will help you,Ã¢â¬ the term leader said. Ã Maybe he was joking? Ã I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell his intonation could have gone either way. Then, the leader handed me a folder. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Here, fan her with this,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã Again joking? Ã Not sure. Ã Ã And naturally, being a social worker student, my mind immediately leapt to the assumption that they would think I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a team player if I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t agree to fan her. So really, what else could I do? Ã When the staff physician walked in, I tried to be nonchalant about the fact that I was standing by the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s head and fanning her with a purple confidentiality. Being at the bottom of the hierarchy within a multidisciplinary asking question is also a careful balance. A friend a year ahead of me gave me some pretty phenomenal advice: Ã If itÃ¢â¬â¢s a question related to patient care or unique to a particular situation, or about management of your patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition ask away. Ã Of course, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a time and a place for everything. From the view of the individual I have sketched, the important questions about groups are those devoted to the conditions that take away the factors in social environment that ordinarily keep his self-system in its normal integration. (Bion, 1961: 145-6) Bion stated that the basic assumptions are states of mind the individuals in the group get into. The awareness of the group remains in its regressed form because the group is there and so restrains further disintegration which would be tantamount to psychotic states, an eventuality that the early structuring of the self also resists desperately. The problems of group dynamics thus become those of how the normal affirmations of the self system are removed. The situations of groups in this respect are of almost infinite variety. Thus when Bion said that certain illnesses might originate as diseases of the group, he thought specific illnesses might prove to be linked to specific states of the group. Here the most prominent stem from the task. Although there may have been some nominal description such as Ã¢â¬Å"to study group processes,Ã¢â¬ none of the members has any clear notion of what that task involves this affected my group as I was working with. There is therefore immediately a considerable loss for the self of its ego anchorage in reality. Important also is the realization that the task, in whatever form it emerges, will involve members in some exposure of their private and even hidden self. This factor I believe to be important in the group dynamics group, although much more so in the therapeutic one. Since the origin of the secret self was its unacceptability, there is a great deal of anxious suspicion among members is that which he expresses some of his feelings about the situation. In conclusion, from my experience, I have learnt that it is important for both the student and the organization placement staff to be aware of who is going where before the placement starts. A good social worker student will contact the organization team in advance of the placement in order to check what time to turn up, and whether there is any uniform policy or other protocols they should be aware of. Likewise a good ward team and mentor will encourage the student to come on a preliminary visit just to be given the above information and to say hello. It can help enormously to reduce anxiety on a first day if the student already knows one or two faces. On a pre-placement visit the student can be introduced to their mentor and have a quick chat and any placement reading can be handed out together with the placement information pack, outlining learning opportunities and ward information, shift pattern, dress code etc. Off duty rotas can be planned together and a pre-placement visit can also be the forum for any negotiation over study days and child care needs etc., so that the anxiety over these can be managed prior to the placement. A good welcoming pre-placement visit can begin the process of socialization into the team and its culture and can give the student an early sense of belonging. Ã References Bion, W.R., (1961) Experiences in groups and other papers. London: Tavistock Publications [Reprinted London: Routledge, 1989; London: Brunner-Routledge, 2001.] Corbin, J. (2008) Is caring a lost art in nursing? International Journal of Nursing Studies; 45, 163-165. Gilligan, C. (1982), In a Different Voice, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, . Hayden, C. & Molenkamp, R. J. (2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Tavistock primer II.Ã¢â¬ Jupiter, FL: The A. K. Rice Institute for the Study of Social Systems. Hirschhorn, L. (1988), The Workplace Within: Psychodynamics of Organizational Life, MIT Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Press, Cambridge, MA, . HM Treasury (1999) Opportunity for All London. The Stationary Kets de Vries, M., Miller, D. (1985), The Neurotic Organization, Jossey Bass, London, . Knowlden, V. (1998) The Communication of Caring in Nursing. Indianapolis: Center Nursing Press. Menzies, I.E.P. (1970) The Functioning of Social Systems as a Defence Against Anxiety: Report on a Study of the Nursing Service of aGeneral Hospital. London: Tavistock Institute of Marital Studies. Pearcey, P. (2007) Tasks and routines in 21st century nursing: student nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions. British Journal of Nursing; 16: 5, 296-300. Reynolds F (2005) Communication and Clinical Effectiveness in Rehabilitation. Edinburgh: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Schachtel, Z. (1989), Ã¢â¬Å"Men, women, and workÃ¢â¬ , in Changing Group Relations. The Proceedings of the Ninth Scientific Meeting of the A.K. Rice Institute (Eds),New York, NY, . Senge, P.M., Roberts, C., Ross, R.B., Smith, B.J., Kleiner, A. (1994), The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London, . Senge, P.M. (1990), Ã¢â¬Å"The leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s new work: building learning organizationsÃ¢â¬ , Sloan Management Review, Fall Reprint 3211, Sorenson, G. (1999). Taking the robes off: when leaders step down. In B. Kellerman and L. Matusak(Eds.), Cutting Edge: Leadership 2000. College Park, MD: Academy of Leadership Press, 1999. Tweddell, L. (2007) Compassion on the curriculum. Nursing Times; 103: 38, 18-19. Ã
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Literature is (a) imaginative or creative writing; (b) distinguish writing, with deep sublime, noble feelings. It includes oral tradition passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth (e. g. proverbs, myths, legends, epic, folk song, etc. ). Literature, as defined by the oxford, etc. , valued as works of art (drama, fiction, essays, poetry, biography) contrasted with technical books and journalism; (2) all the writing of a country (French lit. ) or a period (18th Century English Lit. ); (3) printed material describing or advertising e. g. pamphlets; (4) books dealing with special subjects, travel, poultry farming.Literature is an art expressing beauty through the medium of language; a recreation through language of human situation and experiences, the orchestration of the manifold but elemental experiences of man blended into harmonious and desired patterns of expressions and a faithful reproduction of life executed in an artistic pattern (Del Prado). Why Study Literature? Literature leads to personal fulfilment and academic gains.Separating the values into personal and academic is an intellectual distinction, since both types benefit the students and are all proper parts of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling. The distinction is useful, however, since teachers and librarians must often justify the benefits of literature in the classroom and find the academic benefits the most convincing ones for administrators and parents. Enjoyment The most important personal gain that good books offer to students is the most obvious one-enjoyment.Those of you who read widely as students will never forget the stories that were so tragic that you almost cried out, some were so funny that you laughed out, the poem that was so lifting that you never forgot it, or the mystery that was so scary that your heart thumped with apprehension. Such positive early experience often leads to a lifetime of reading enjoyment. Imagination and Inspiration By seeing the world around them in new ways and by considering ways of living other than their own, students increase their ability to think divergently.Stories often map the divergent paths that our ancestors might have taken or that our descendants might someday take. Through the vicarious experience of entering a different world from the present one, students develop their imaginations. In addition, stories about people, both real and imaginary, can inspire students to overcome obstacles, accept different perspectives, and formulate personal goals. The Academic Value of Literature to Student In addition to the personal benefits of literature for yong readers, there are several important academic benefits.Reading Many of you may have reached the common-sense deduction that reading ability, like any other skill, improves with practice. Many teachers and librarians believe that regular involvement with excellent and appropriate literature can foster language development to young people and can help them to learn to r ead and to value reading. Writing Since people tend to assimilate or adopt what they like of what they read and hear, young people may, by listening to and reading literature, begin to develop their own writing Ã¢â¬Å"voiceÃ¢â¬ , or unique, personal writing style.By listening to and reading excellent literature, children are exposed to rich vocabulary and excellent writing styles, which serve as good models for their own speaking and writing voices. The acquisition of a larger vocabulary through reading offers young writers a better word choice for their own stories. Devices found in books such as the use of dialect, dialogue, and precise descriptions are often assimilated into studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ own writing. Vicarious ExperienceWhen a story is convincing written that readers feel as though they have live through an experience or have actually been in the place and time where the story is set, the book have given them a vicarious experience. Experiences such as these are broadening students to stories from many lands and cultures, teachers and libraries are building a solid foundation for multicultural and international understanding. Walking in someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes often help students to develop a greater capacity to empathize with others.Students around the world can benefit from stories that explain what life is, for people who are restricted by handicaps, politics, or circumstances or whose lives are different from theirs because of culture or geography. Likewise, young readers of today can relate on a more personal level with the events and people of history. Heritage Stories that are handed down from one generation to the next connect us to our past, to the roots of our specific cultures, national heritage, and general human condition. Stories are the repositories of culture.Knowing the tales, characters, expression, riddles, lullabies, songs, and adages that are part of our cultural heritage makes us culturally literate. Stories based on fact hel p young people to gain a greater appreciation for what history is and for the people, both ordinary and extraordinary who made history. Art Appreciation Illustration in some literature books (ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Literature) can be appreciated both for its ability to help tell the story (cognitive value) and for its value as art (aesthetic value).Picture books are profusely illustrated books in which the illustrations are, to varying degrees, essential to the enjoyment and understanding of the story. For this reason, illustrations in picture books are said to be integral to the story. The illustration in picture books provides actual plot or concept information as well as clues to character traits, settings, and moods. Without the illustrations, therefore these books would be diminished, and in some case the story would make no sense or would be nonexistent.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Bharti Airtel Limited, commonly known as Airtel, is an Indian multinational telecommunications services company headquartered at New Delhi, India. It operates in 20 countries across South Asia, Africa and the Channel Islands. Airtel has GSM network in all countries in which it operates, providing 2G, 3G and 4G services depending upon the country of operation. Airtel is the world's third largest mobile telecommunications company with over 261 million subscribers across 150 countries as of August 2012.  It is the largest cellular service provider in India, with 183. 1 million subscribers as of November 2012.  Airtel is the third largest in-country mobile operator by subscriber base, behind China Mobile and China Unicom. Airtel is the largest provider of mobile telephony and second largest provider of fixed telephony in India, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services. It offers its telecom services under the airtel brand, and is headed by Sunil Bhar ti Mittal. Bharti Airtel is the first Indian telecom service provider to achieve Cisco Gold Certification. 6] It also acts as a carrier for national and international long distance communication services. The company has a submarine cable landing station at Chennai, which connects the submarine cable connecting Chennai and Singapore. Airtel is credited with pioneering the business strategy of outsourcing all of its business operations except marketing, sales and finance and building the Ã¢â¬Ëminutes factory' model of low cost and high volumes. The strategy has since been copied by several operators.  Its networkÃ¢â¬âbase stations, microwave links, etc. is maintained by Ericsson and Nokia Siemens Network whereas business support is provided by IBM, and transmission towers are maintained by another company (Bharti Infratel Ltd. in India).  Ericsson agreed for the first time to be paid by the minute for installation and maintenance of their equipment rather than being paid up front, which allowed Airtel to provide low call rates of INR1/minute (US$0. 02/minute).  During the last financial year (2009Ã¢â¬â10), Bharti negotiated for its strategic partner Alcatel-Luc ent to manage the network infrastructure for the tele-media business. On 31 May 2012, Bharti Airtel awarded the three-year contract to Alcatel-Lucent for setting up an Internet Protocol access network (mobile backhaul) across the country. This would help consumers access internet at faster speed and high quality internet browsing on mobile handsets.  Sunil Mittal founded the Bharti Group. In 1983, Mittal was in an agreement with Germany's Siemens to manufacture push-button telephone models for the Indian market. In 1986, Mittal incorporated Bharti Telecom Limited (BTL), and his company became the first in India to offer push-button telephones, establishing the basis of Bharti Enterprises. By the early 1990s, Sunil Mittal had also launched the country's first fax machines and its first cordless telephones. In 1992, Mittal won a bid to build a cellular phone network in Delhi. In 1995, Mittal incorporated the cellular operations as Bharti Tele-Ventures and launched service in Delhi. In 1996, cellular service was extended to Himachal Pradesh. In 1999, Bharti Enterprises acquired control of JT Holdings, and extended cellular operations to Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. In 2000, Bharti acquired control of Skycell Communications, in Chennai. In 2001, the company acquired control of Spice Cell in Calcutta. Bharti Enterprises went public in 2002, and the company was listed on Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange of India. In 2003, the cellular phone operations were rebranded under the single Airtel brand. In 2004, Bharti acquired control of Hexacom and entered Rajasthan. In 2005, Bharti extended its network to Andaman and Nicobar. This expansion allowed it to offer voice services all across India. In 2009, Airtel launched its first international mobile network in Sri Lanka. In 2010, Airtel acquired the African operations of the Kuwait based Zain Telecom. In March 2012, Airtel launched a mobile operation in Rwanda.  On 26 February 2013, Airtel announced that it had deployed EricssonÃ¢â¬â¢s Mobile Broadband Charging (MBC) solution and completely modernized its prepaid services for its subscribers in India. As a part of the deal, EricssonÃ¢â¬â¢s multi service MBC suite allows prepaid customers to have personalized profile based data charging plans. Prepaid customers will be able to customize their data plans across mobility, fixed line and broadband by cross bundling across multiple domains (2G, 3G, 4G/LTE & Wi-Fi). It will also offer flexible multi service charging in geographical redundant mode, making Airtel the first operator to implement geographical redundancy at such a large scale.  In May 2013, Bharti Infotel paid Rs 50,000 as compensation to a customer Ã¢â¬Å"for unfair trade practicesÃ¢â¬ . The customer alleged that the company continued to aggressively demand payment despite customer requests for disconnection of service. 
Friday, September 13, 2019
Health and sefty - Essay Example Naturally large number of skilled and unskilled manpower is engaged for successful completion of these projects. It has been observed with concern that large number of accidents of different types and intensities frequently occurs during different construction activities causing personal injury or property damage. Blake defines accident Ã¢â¬Ëas any assurance that interrupts or interferes with the orderly progress of the projectÃ¢â¬â¢. The accidents are direct result of unsafe activities and conditions both of which can be controlled by health and safety management. Unsafe activities involve working without authority, failure to warn of danger, leaving equipment in dangerous condition, using defective equipment etc. Unsafe conditions involve inadequate or missing guard, defective tools and machinery, inadequate fire fighting, excessive noise etc. An accident prevention programme is aimed to reduce the number of accidents and there by the cost of construction. From the observation and analysis it has been seen that 85 to 95% of accidents are prevent able. It is not just a matter of setting up a list of rules and making safety inspection, although both of these have their place. We need a system for managing health and safety which meets the needs of project and fulfills legal requirements. Objectives of Health and Safety Management. The perceived objectives of the health and safety management for accident prevention are as under:- 1. To reduce the chances of loss of human life. 2. To reduce the temporary and permanent injuries to work force employed. 3. To avoid adoption of unsafe practices during all phases/ activities. 4. To avoid loss of materials resulting from accidents. Project Identification. A ware house was constructed for the storage of chemicals. The project involves design, excavation for basement, digging of foundations, scaffolding and form work for roof slab. The project was completed in six months and we will discuss the health and safety issu es along with risk management during all activities. Considerations and Decisions of the Architect/Designer. At the onset of design stage or planning to begin work, a comprehensive health and safety plan for the project should be formalized and set out in a health and safety plan.Ã Following are the salient aspects need to be addressed by the designer. 1. The project should be well designed and meeting standard engineering and environmental requirement of the area by the competent designers. 2. Principles of structural design along with standard code practices are adhered while designing with minimum risk. 3. Waste management for the debris likely to encounter during construction must be worked out in design stage. 4. Environmental factors like wind, cold, snow and rain should be considered while designing the structure. 5. Adequate fire arrangement in design should be incorporated. 6. Cross checking of design by an independent party. 7. Design must ensure safety during constructi on and maintenance afterwards. Hazard Identification. These are danger or potential danger likely to occur during any phase of project. The Maximum hazard identification levels were found to be 0.899 (89.9%) for a construction project within the nuclear industry. Investigation into hazard identification levels have been initially targeted on three different industry sectors i.e. UK rail, nuclear, and general construction. Likely hazard during identified project are
Thursday, September 12, 2019
An Analysis of Charles Darwin's Works - Essay Example But he was not moved by the studies and found them disinteresting. With the intention of making a career in the Church of England, Darwin went to learn theology at ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s College, Cambridge. But he did not have much interest in the subject of theology either. As in Edinburg, also in ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s College he did not pay much attention in his studies however he managed to pass the examinations and left Cambridge in 1831 and later became a naturalist with profound interests in geology and life sciences (A Brief History of Charles Darwin). DarwinsÃ¢â¬â¢ works Barlow observes that Ã¢â¬Å"Charles DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s own reflections on his life and work, written between the ages 67 and 73, must remain an important work of reference, whether in history of ideas or in a portrait gallery of men. He still stands as the leading figure of that revolution in scientific thought which followed the publication of the Origin of Species in the middle of the 19th century, a revolution soon invo lving all realms of knowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (Barlow 11). After the completion of his studies Darwin devoted his time in exploring the local natural history and different aspects of geology. A turning point in his life can be attributed to an opportunity which he got from John Henslowe who was a professor of Botany in Cambridge. John Henslowe recommended DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s name for a position on a British Navy survey vessel- HMS Beagle. The vessel was dedicated to make a Ã¢â¬Ëcoastal survey expeditionÃ¢â¬â¢ to South America for two years. The captain of the vessel wanted eagerly to have a naturalist companion on board. Instead of two years the voyage lasted for five long years providing Darwin an immense opportunity to explore South America rigorously with numerous islands in the Pacific Ocean, including the Galapagos. Returning from England in 1839, Darwin furnished deep focus on experiments on the specimens and the artifacts which he had collected from the voyage of which develo pment on the Ã¢â¬Ëspecies transmutationÃ¢â¬â¢ analysis bears much significance. In due course of time, he became quite well known and established his reputation as a renowned naturalist in London. While he was in the voyage in the BeaglesÃ¢â¬â¢ Darwin minutely noticed various aspects of the morphology and biogeography of several flora and fauna and inferred that the species are similar in various respects. By 1838, his theory of natural selection and survival of the fittest more or less made its foundation. A British naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace was rigorously working in South Asia on the generation of ideas of the evolution of species like Charles Darwin. With the help of his friends Darwin prepared a brief paper and read it before the Royal Society along with the paper of Wallace and in 1859 published his work, On the Origin of species, which was an ignition phase of his accelerating future works. In the remaining part of his life Darwin deeply engrossed himself in the research work and publishing books on evolution of life. Among his other innumerable works few which bears special significance are his works on climbing plants, insect-orchid mutualisms, and earthworms. An epitome of unparalleled intellect, Darwin took his last breath in his Downe House on April 19, 1882 (Guffey). DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Survival of the Fittest Charles DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of survival of the fittest is one of the greatest contributions to the world of science. Variations in the behavior of the organisms gave rise
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Subsidies - Research Paper Example It will investigate whether the tax system serves as a subsidy to the sector or not. In Pakistan there are a large number of cafes and restaurants that apply charges on the Bills. Sometimes the rates of these charges are really high which makes it difficult for the common middle class man to have a meal in such restaurants. The study will try to explore whether this tax system is making a division in the class or not and is promoting a society which supports a class system or not. One of the major reasons for investigating this area is that Pakistan is a third world country with a majority of people in the middle class. There still exist a large numbers of places where only rich people reside. These places are the ones that apply huge tax rate on the bills. The study will investigate the correlation between tax and class;whether higher tax invites higher class. Studying the tax structure has been the interest of all countries as it is linked to the development of the country. Bargain et al, (2011)reports the progressive nature of the tax structure by sayingÃ¢â¬ËThe tax structure in almost all the countriesis progressiveÃ¢â¬â¢. This progressive nature of tax structures has a lot of advantages and disadvantages. Chaudhri (1965) in the research article Ã¢â¬ËTaxation in Pakistan: A Critical AppraisalÃ¢â¬â¢ state the disadvantages of tax system by saying that Ã¢â¬Ëwhatever money is collected is looted by the rulers or spent on unnecessary luxury itemsÃ¢â¬â¢. Qualitative research methodology will be applied because it will answer Ã¢â¬ËhowÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËwhatÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËwhyÃ¢â¬â¢ questions. For example, what are the benefits of tax system?Why tax system is applied? How tax system benefits the industry? etc. The research will also employ Quantitative research methodology because a set of interviews and questionnaires will be prepared. These interviews and questionnaires will cover the views of the owners of different cafes and restaurants. The results will be based on their responses and
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Television talent shows - Essay Example Discussion Television shows like X-factor add value to the British music industry Modern artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ debate on the role of televisions shows like X factor talent television in British music industry. Some argue that such television shows add value to the industry and others oppose the claim and suggest that these shows only damage the face of the music industry in recent and future years, (Davis and Hall, 2008, p.87). These in favor of talent television show assert that television shows such as X factor have enormous advantages to the British music industry. The reality of the shoes provides winners and stats with an opportunity to be plucked from mundane, obscure lives and put them into a cauldron of media, until voted out of the show Ã¢â¬â by the public Ã¢â¬â in a dramatic way. The hope of a guaranteed recording prize of contract with marketing advantage is increasingly successful as a motivation to engage willing artists at a reduced cost. For instance, X factor provides successful competitors a critical gate pass into the industry of music and gives them an opportunity for recognition. TV synchronizes acts as a crucial opportunity, for instance, beyond the literal advantage in terms of branding artist opportunities and extra income, in one spin of a prominent show, emerging artists and music that may not have had a greater exposure and popularity is faster thrust on many audience, (Cowlin, 2010, p.52). Similarly, through the talent television shows artists have a chance to gain popularity, attain significant growth, and increase their fan base. For instance, X-factor talent shows has assisted in putting live music forward towards the front of the mass consciousness, through making television content from selection of talents. The show has also provided chances for squeezed record labels to propel losing finalists work to markets with reduced costs and risks. This is because of television shows exposure such artists have received and the fan base c reated. This brings a crucial and incredible growth of British music industry in terms of popularity and artists branding. Experts agree that the X-factor alumni bankability plays a crucial role in the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial allure, and various other British music industries have began to realize the importance of enrolling their artists in television shows because talent show mentors and performers may have an extensive effect on music industry sales. Television shows such as X-factor add value or are crucial to British music industry because in a highly fragmented media world, the talent show is among the few mass-market strategies for exposing artists to the wider public. For instance, with the prominent Pops and other public media markets demise, the X-factor remains as the only strategy for pop and rock artists mainstream to expose artists and their music to the mass music markets and other public audience, (Holmes, 200, p.56). Talent television shows have over 15 million viewers at a time and it is crucial for various artists to get on these shows as a way of linking to family viewers that are increasingly crucial to music selling and expansion. X-factor show and other shows serves as Ã¢â¬Ëwater coolerÃ¢â¬â¢ framework as featured artist enormously benefit from massive press coverage, therefore, the benefit of series appearance can be an extensive advantage, (Davis and Hall, 2008, p.87). Similarly, the shows engage people with the music and make youths enthusiastic about
Monday, September 9, 2019
Audit and Assurance Case Study(SANCTUARY GROUP PLC) - Essay Example The Company's subsidiary, Bravado International Group Limited, operates as a merchandising company that specializes in exploiting intellectual property rights for more than 100 artists and brands. Live Agency even represents over two hundred twenty acts for live performance. Also, its business is carried out by the Company's subsidiary, Helter Skelter Agency Limited. This company operates as a booking agency. The following paragraphs will explain how audit strategy is related to the fairness of the financial statements of the. An audit(Pickett, 2006) is defined as the evaluation of an organization, process, system, project or product. In accounting, an audit is the independent assessment of the fairness where a company's financial statements are presented by its mangers or board of directors. It is done by competent, independent and objective person or persons, known as auditors or certified public accountants, who then issue a report on the results of the audit(Whittington, 1995). And, the audits are performed to determine the validity and reliability of financial information. Also, it provides an assessment of a company or a business' system of internal control. The accounting and related recording systems must adhere to generally accepted standards set by governing bodies that regulate how businesses should presented in terms of balance sheet, income statement and statement of cash flows. The audit should be based on random sampling and it should not be an assurance that financial statements are error free. Auditing also provides assurance for third parties or external financial statement users that such statements present 'fairly' a company's financial condition and results of operations.Further, effective risk management(Frame, 2003) will not happen overnight. Managers who want to enable their organizations to be better at managing risk must recognize that the road to effective risk management is definitely long, twisting, and occasionally hazardous. Beginning the journey is not as difficult. It may be even be triggered by a one-page directive issued by the chief operating officer of the organization following a small disaster, exhorting the organization to implement good risk management practices. But after the uninitiated, when the confetti has settled and the cheerers have been thrown away, the journey toward effective risk management is an uphill battle. In some way, what happens at this point is typical of many high-sounding corporate decisions. When light shines on the initiative, everyone scrambles to support it. When the senior managers turn their attention to other issues, the initiative begins to lose momentum, and without active support from top management, it falters. It may even hang on for a while until it dies and is buried. The risk related approach to external audit in the audit of Santuary Group Plc is based on control risk, audit risk and inherent risk. Audit risk is used to describe what is usually applied when in case of an audit of the financial statements of an entity. The first objective of the audit of the balance sheet, in
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Week 3-4 - Assignment Example Quality literacy learning happens when students are offered the opportunities to appreciate recreational and creative aspect of the entire literature and other kinds of texts (Nixon, Comber, with Grant, & Wells, 2010). The curriculum should therefore allow students to fully participate in the society. The program should involve among other forms of support an emphasis on independent reading and independent writing alongside critical literacy to achieve independent learning for diverse learners. This should be crowned by a proper ongoing assessment that involves the following: running records, observation surveys, observation checklists, rubrics, anecdotal records, and marking scales. Using an Ã¢â¬Ëinquiry stanceÃ¢â¬â¢ permits teachers to analyze the dynamics and complexities of their classroom communities as well as to design curriculum basing on their knowledge/understanding of students in their circumstances (Nixon, Comber, with Grant, & Wells, 2010). This means, teacher-researchers in schools teaching diverse students bring social circumstance into the foreground; they take into social circumstance to be more than the Ã¢â¬ËbackgroundÃ¢â¬â¢ to the lives of their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢. This approach makes the cultural and linguistic diversity of families a property rather than a deficit. The discussion here follows the work of a teacher who combines critical approach literacy with a property model of cultural diversity (Laura & Carol, 2008). This involves, foregrounding studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ cultural and linguistic resources in the curriculum to generate high quality literature results for diverse learners. The school I teach, it serves a diverse community of students. This includes significant numbers of languages speakers other than English in each classroom. This means that in there are collaborations between teachers to help linguistically and culturally diverse students to develop their literacy in English and other learning
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Facial Expression Categorization by Chimpanzees Using Standardized Stimuli - Essay Example Four experiments were conducted onchimpanzees using a set of standardized, prototypical stimuli created using the newChimpFACS coding system. 1) The first experiment was to determine whether chimpanzees could discriminate the3D facial expression figures in a MOT (matching-to-sample). It was a reproduction ofthe study by study by Parr, Hopkins, et al. (1998) Procedure: Data were collected on experimenting 6 male and female chimpanzees aged11 years and above. They were tested in their home cage. The computer placed in anaudio visual cart was positioned about 30 cms from the cage and the eye of each animalwas about 40 cms from the computer. A joystick was attached protruding 4 cms into themesh. The experiments conducted were: 1) Initial Discrimination of Poser Stimuli 2)Inversion Effect for Facial expression 3) Examining Perceived Dissimilarity usingMultidimensional Scaling 4) Discriminating Facial Expressions using ComponentMovement. Experiment 1:The aim of this initial experiment was to verify whetherthe Poser facial expression stimuli were prominent for the subjects, and whether it couldbe discriminated at high levels of skill and that expressions were dealt with no evidentparent stimulus biases. The analysis showed that 'scream' was the most salientexpression to single out. In fact the subjects reached the final testing criteria for screamsin minimum time. Experiment 2:Experiment 2 revealed a significant inversion effect suggesting a generalconfigural processing strategy for all expressions. Experiment 3:Subjects' pattern of error when differentiating all expressions. Apart from screams and pant-hoots showed much difference based on the identity of thefoil expression. They share the majority of their individual component movements, suchas the bared-teeth display, the presence of these similarities did little to confuseperformance. The MDS analysis provides a statistical interpretation of howexpressions were categorized based on their perceived dissimilarity. Experiment 4:The results showed that for each facial expression, at least one component movement wasseen to
Socrates Philosophy Essay And now, Athenians, I am not going to argue for my sake, as you may think, but for yours, that you may not sin against the god, or lightly reject his favor by condemning me. For if you kill me you will not easily find another like me, who, if I may use such a ludicrous figure of speech, am a sort of gadfly, given to the state by the god; and the state is like a great and noble steed who is tardy in his motions owing to his very size, and requires to be stirred into life. (Socrates, The Apology) Socrates also refers to himself as a gadfly because he bites, and buzzes at the self-satisfied, which, indebted them to consider matters of virtue. He is also like a gadfly because he is likely to get swatted away because of his bite or words of wisdom. His job was to sting the sleeping horse of the Athenian conscious into wakefulness. Socrates said he was doing a service to the Athenian people by bringing them into reality. What Socrates meant by bringing them into reality was that he was enriching the people with questions and problems that made them think. He wanted them to think for themselves and not just agree with other people like the rich and powerful. He wanted the people to not be scared to think for themselves and he wanted them to learn. When Socrates refers to himself as a gadfly during his trial, he means that he is like an examiner of things. He said that he was given to the state by the god.(Socrates, The Apology) He means by this that he was put here to ask questions to examine life and its surroundings. Socrates is like a gadfly because he pesters his objects or people to hopelessness. He asked so many questions and his questions were so profound and intense, that many people became annoyed at him because they probably could not answer them because they were either too scared to answer them (because they knew that Socrates would probably ask another question on top of the first question if they were able to answer it), or they were just to confused to answer the question Socrates had asked. When Socrates referred himself to a gadfly, it opened up a window to new generations of philosophers who, acted like gadflies themselves. Everywhere we look, we see humanitys philosophical side waking up. People nowa days are asking more questions. I think one of the biggest philosophical questions is where did we come from? Why are we here? What is the meaning of life? From Socrates, we have learned a way to ponder these questions and to come up with our own answers. The role of philosophy is important because people need to ask questions to understand life and reality and what is going on around them. I think that asking questions and trying to find the answers to them makes our souls grow and be healthy. We need a healthy soul to be alive. Socrates wanted people to not be ignorant because he said that was unhealthy for the soul. The only way to not be ignorant is to ask questions. And that is exactly what Socrates did. I think that the whole ordeal of Socrates says that the conduct of philosophy changes. Philosophers conduct themselves in a manner to which they are essential and irreplaceable because of their minds, they have a great presence about them, and they dont criticize others for their beliefs, except for Socrates. On the other hand, people who listen to philosophers or go against them, sometimes are rude, they are ignorant, and they dont understand the point a philosopher is trying to make. The conduct of philosophy depends on the person and how they view things. The conduct of philosophy is like the conduct of gadflies because many people get annoyed by the philosophers because of their questions. By how in depth the questions are and by how many questions the philosophers ask. Some people think that philosophers are bothersome. In conclusion, I think all of these things and other things help to define what philosophy is today. If we didnt have people like Socrates and Plato and other great philosophers, where would we be to day in the realm of philosophy? Would people actually want or learn to question certain subjects? I think that if they hadnt ever been born, then we wouldnt think for our selves, or think great thoughts. We would be living in a pretty boring world.
Friday, September 6, 2019
Counseling Ethics Essay Ethics are based on philosophical principles and these guidelines assist a practitioner in making the best possible decisions for the welfare of the clients and the practitioner himself. Ethics are normative or critical in nature and concern human conduct and moral decision. Morality describes decision making and judgement by an individual concerning an incident or human behaviour. This is greatly influenced by the values he or she has acquired or formed as a result of external influence or indoctrination. Value is an enduring belief that a specific that a specific end-state of conduct is desirable (McLeod, 1998). Terminal and instrumental values are two types of values where the former refer to the desired end-state of existence, for example wisdom and the later refer to the mode of conduct that leads to it, for example broad-mindedness .Values then influence and determine the decisions we choose to make in our daily lives. In providing an effective, therapeutic therapy, a practitioner helping a client encountering dilemma in decision- making may adopt the eight Ã¢â¬â step model approach to think through the ethical problems (Corey, Corey Callanan, 2007). The steps of the model are described as follows: Step 1- Identify the problem or dilemma. In the first step the existence of the problem must be recognised. The nature of the problem has to be ascertained. Identify if it is an ethical, legal, moral, professional or clinical problem. The practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s and the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s insights regarding the problem must be examined. Consultation with the client can begin at this stage as problems are being identified. Looking at the problem from different perspectives is useful as most ethical dilemmas are complex. Step 2 Ã¢â¬â Identify the potential issues involved. From the collected information, irrelevant ones must be discarded. The critical issues must be noted and described. The welfare of those involved; their rights and responsibilities must be evaluated. Ethical principles relevant to the problem must be identified and examined with the client. In doing so the moral principles namely, autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, justice and fidelity must be considered and applied to theÃ situation. The safety and welfare of the client and practitioner cannot be compromised while potential issues are being sorted out. Step 3- Review the relevant ethics codes. The practitioner must seek guidance that can be found from the professional codes of ethics. They provide a basis for accountability, and through their enforcement, provide protection for clients from unethical practices (Corey, 1997). Practitioner must also examine the agreeability of his values with the relevant codes. Should they be in conflict, he must have a rationale to support his stance. It is essential to consider congruency of these values and ethics with those of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s. The practitioner must ensure clarity of the ethical codes and if they are applicable with the state laws of the region. Step 4- Know the applicable laws and regulations. The practitioner should be up to date with the specific and relevant laws that apply to the ethical issue. This is particularly critical in situations which deal with keeping or breaching of confidentiality, reporting of child or elder abuse, record keeping, assessment, diagnosis, issues pertaining to dangers to self or others and the grounds of malpractice. Step 5- Obtain consultation. Consulting with colleagues to obtain different perspectives on the problems is generally considered to be helpful. Seeking legal counsel for legal questions is prudent along with consulting a person with an expertise in an unfamiliar culture to serve a client from that culture. In addition the practitioner must understand current rules and regulations of the agency or organization that he or she is working for. It is wise for the nature of the consultation and suggestions provided to be documented. These records would illustrate the practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to adhere to the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s standard practice. Step 6- Consider possible and probable courses of action. At this point a list of a variety of courses of action may be identifiedÃ through brainstorming. The practitioner could discuss with the client as well as other professionals the available options. The possibilities could be identified for probable courses of actions and these should be documented. Step 7- Enumerate the consequences of various decisions. From the various possible courses of actions, implications of each course must be examined. The questions of who will be affected and to what extent will the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to pursue the actions affect them must be carefully examined. Again using the fundamental moral principles as a framework, the client must collaborate with the practitioner to ascertain the probable outcomes and consequences. If new ethical issues arise from the selected course of action, a re-evaluation of the action must be pursued. Step 8- Decide on what appears to be the best course of action. Careful consideration of all information received from different sources deliberately and with sensitivity to cross cultural issues is critical before making the best decision. Once making the decision, informing the supervisor, implementing and documenting the decision follows. Reflecting on the experience considering any follow up action could result in finding a solution for the client. While the procedural steps may help in resolving ethical matters, some implications may be noted. Firstly, the client enters a collaborative relationship with the practitioner. The implication is that the client with the practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s help must draw out the details of the problem. This implicates that the client should refrain from coveting relevant information to enable an accurate analysis of the issue. This is to ascertain the true nature of the problem whether it is an ethical, legal, moral, professional, or clinical one. The different perspectives of the problem must be explored. What are the insights the client and practitioner have regarding the problem? (Corey et al., 2007). Failing which the consequence is an unnecessary delay in resolving the problem as there will be an inaccurate analysis of the situation. Secondly, in identifying the potential issues, all the persons involved in the problem must be identified. The implication of failing to identify any one individual who may be affected by the decision of the client would be unethical. The welfare, rights and responsibilities of those affected by the decision might create a different set of problems. The decision would then have to be reversed and a new course of action would have to be pursued. It is to therefore necessary to explore to what extent the course of the action will affect the client and the others (Corey et al., 2007). Next the values and ethics of the client and the practitioner must be evaluated and the degree of congruency noted. This implicates that the relevant ethical principles that are identified to the problem should not be in conflict with those of the client and the practitioner. If there are disagreements, then they must be supported with a rationale. If necessary, guidance must be sought from the relevant organization to clarify the professional codes to the particular problem. Otherwise consequently, the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s decision may violate the ethical codes relevant to the issue. The client must be informed of the relevant and most recent laws or regulations that apply to the situation. He must look out for any law or regulations that have a bearing on the situation. The implication of his ignorance is that he may run into problems with the law. The practitioner too must abide by the rules, regulations and policies of the workplace. When in doubt practitioner must seek professional advice. The client must be informed of legal issues related to confidentiality, abuse of the vulnerable, record keeping and grounds for malpractice. If the practitioner discovers a criminal act by a client for example, sex with an under-aged girl he has the moral responsibility to report him. The practitioner has the ethical responsibility to discuss with the client on the implications of his actions before reporting the incident. The client must understand the implications of his actions that violate the law. The fundamental moral principles may be considered as framework for evaluating the consequences of the given course of action. The client mustÃ decide the principles that apply to the situation specifically and prioritise them. By thinking through these ethical principles, professional can better evaluate their options in such complex situations. Prioritising the principles can help the client and practitioner to work through the steps of the decision-making model (Elizabeth, 2010). There are implications however when prioritizing one over another. The practitioner encourages the client to exercise autonomy i.e. making a free choice. In doing so, the client must have the concept of doing no harm or non-maleficence and acting in justice (Elizabeth, 2010). Conflict can arise when subscribing to justice which may result in the necessity of treating an individual differently. Though not easy to apply equal weightage to all the principles, it will help to explore an ethical dilemma and resolve it with the least damage to the welfare of those affected. The model may be useful when clients seek help in making decisions in their life regarding relationship issues. A client may be caught in a loveless marriage and be involved in an extra-marital affair and seek advice to take the next step in his life. The dilemma of whether to dissolve his marriage and move on with his life or stay in the marriage to fulfil his duties towards his wife and children is one that needs careful consideration. A divorce would mean breaking up of his family and causing a disruption in the relationship with his children. Staying in the marriage would mean the sacrifice of his love life. Analysing his situation using the model can shed light to clarify the implications of his actions and weigh the consequences. The model may help clients to make decisions at their place of work regarding conflicting work practices. An office worker may be tormented by the wrong practices of her fellow colleagues. She may be facing a dilemma as to whether to report her colleagues to the management or turn a blind eye to the situation. The model can help the client to analyse the situation and evaluate her moral values. She would then be able to make an ethical decision that would do least harm to those involved in the situation. In conclusion, the eight Ã¢â¬â step model can be a useful tool in helping a practitioner to guide clients to make sound decisions that do not haveÃ conflict with their ethics and are aligned with the laws and regulations of the region. In doing so the practitioner must ensure that he or she is operating in the best interest of the clients.